Article

Evidence for organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol

University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Flemish, Belgium
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 02/2007; 41(2):517-27. DOI: 10.1021/es062081q
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent work has shown that particle-phase reactions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), with enhancements of SOA yields in the presence of acidic seed aerosol. In this study, the chemical composition of SOA from the photooxidations of alpha-pinene and isoprene, in the presence or absence of sulfate seed aerosol, is investigated through a series of controlled chamber experiments in two separate laboratories. By using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, sulfate esters in SOA produced in laboratory photooxidation experiments are identified for the first time. Sulfate esters are found to account for a larger fraction of the SOA mass when the acidity of seed aerosol is increased, a result consistent with aerosol acidity increasing SOA formation. Many of the isoprene and alpha-pinene sulfate esters identified in these chamber experiments are also found in ambient aerosol collected at several locations in the southeastern U.S. It is likely that this pathway is important for other biogenic terpenes, and may be important in the formation of humic-like substances (HULIS) in ambient aerosol.

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    • "and α-pinene photooxidation (Surratt et al., 2007a, b), we have not observed a significant yield increase in the experiments in which initial SO 2 was introduced in the chamber (20091111 and 20100607), likely due to variations in other experimental conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Los aerosoles orgánicos secundarios (AOS) constituyen una fracción de las partículas atmosféricas. Este tipo de partículas se forman como consecuencia de la reacción de oxidación de ciertos gases orgánicos, lo que conduce a la formación de compuestos de baja volatilidad. Del mismo modo que para otros contaminantes atmosféricos, los modelos de calidad del aire permiten la simulación de partículas, una herramienta muy útil en tareas de gestión de la calidad del aire. Sin embargo, el uso adecuado de estos modelos debe basarse en la validación de su capacidad para reproducir las concentraciones observadas. Las estaciones de monitoreo de la calidad del aire registran información sobre una amplia variedad de contaminantes atmosféricos. Desafortunadamente, no se dispone habitualmente de medidas de AOS, ya que la instrumentación que se tiene en dichas redes de monitoreo no permite la diferenciación de las fuentes primarias y secundarias de los aerosoles orgánicos. Este documento presenta una serie de experimentos de fotooxidación realizados en las cámaras de simulación del Fotorreactor Europeo (CEAM, España) en diferentes condiciones experimentales con objeto de obtener datos sobre la formación de AOS. El uso de este tipo de cámaras permite aislar los procesos químicos y de formación de aerosoles, por lo que los datos presentados en este estudio tienen un considerable valor para propósitos de evaluación de modelos de formación de AOS, al igual que para el estudio del comportamiento de este tipo de partículas.
    Atmosfera 01/2013; 26(1):59. DOI:10.1016/S0187-6236(13)71062-2 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    • "The effects of acid enhancement on BSOA formation were examined by comparing paired samples collected under high and low SO 2 or NH 3 scenarios. Even though some of these BSOA tracers have been previously characterized from PM 2.5 samples collected from the SEARCH network in a time-integrated manner (Chan et al., 2010b; Gao et al., 2006; Surratt et al., 2007a, 2008), using conditional sampling approaches to collect PM 2.5 in this study is to our knowledge one of the first attempts to systematically examine if BSOA formation is enhanced or suppressed due to anthropogenic emissions in this region. "
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    ABSTRACT: Filter-based PM2.5 samples were chemically analyzed to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene in a rural atmosphere of the southeastern US influenced by both anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Daytime PM2.5 samples were collected during summer 2010 using conditional sampling approaches based on pre-defined high and low SO2 or NH3 thresholds. Known molecular-level tracers for isoprene SOA formation, including 2-methylglyceric acid, 3-methyltetrahydrofuran-3,4-diols, 2-methyltetrols, C5-alkene triols, dimers, and organosulfate derivatives, were identified and quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS). Mass concentrations of six isoprene low-NOx SOA tracers contributed to 12-19% of total organic matter (OM) in PM2.5 samples collected during the sampling period, indicating the importance of the hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation (so-called photooxidation) of isoprene under low-NOx conditions that leads to SOA formation through reactive uptake of gaseous isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) in this region. IEPOX-derived SOA tracers were enhanced under high-SO2 sampling scenarios, suggesting that SO2 oxidation increases aerosol acidity of sulfate aerosols needed for enhancing heterogeneous oxirane ring-opening reactions of IEPOX. No clear associations between isoprene SOA formation and high and low NH3 conditional samples were found. Furthermore, weak correlations between aerosol acidity and mass of IEPOX SOA tracers suggests that IEPOX-derived SOA formation might be modulated by other factors as well in addition to aerosol acidity. Positive correlations between sulfate aerosol loadings and IEPOX-derived SOA tracers for samples collected under all conditions indicates that sulfate aerosol could be a surrogate for surface area in the uptake of IEPOX onto preexisting aerosols.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2013; 13:8457-8470. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-8457-2013 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    • "An important difference to highlight between the marine and continental rainwater is the lack of CHON-, CHONSand nd CHOS-compound classes detected in the negative ionization mode in the marine rainwater. These groups were identified as organonitrates, nitrooxy-organosulfates, and organosulfates in continental rainwater, known contributors to SOA formed under anthropogenic conditions (i.e., high [NO x ] and acidic sulfate seed aerosol) (Surratt et al., 2007; Gomez-Gonzalez et al., 2008; Surratt et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is a subset of the complex organic matter in aerosols and rainwater, which impacts cloud condensation processes and aerosol chemical and optical properties and may play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle of N. However, its sources, composition, connections to inorganic N, and variability are largely unknown. Rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W), which experiences both anthropogenic and marine influenced air masses. Samples were analyzed by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to chemically characterize the WSON. Elemental compositions of 2281 N containing compounds were determined over the mass range m/z+ 50 to 500. The five compound classes with the largest number of elemental formulas identified, in order from the highest number of formulas to the lowest, contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON+), CHON compounds that contained sulfur (CHONS+), CHON compounds that contained phosphorus (CHONP+), CHON compounds that contained both sulfur and phosphorus (CHONSP+), and compounds that contained only carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN+). Compared to rainwater collected in the continental USA, average O:C ratios of all N containing compound classes were lower in the marine samples whereas double bond equivalent values were higher, suggesting a reduced role of secondary formation mechanisms. Despite their prevalence in continental rainwater, no organonitrates or nitrooxy-organosulfates were detected, but there was an increased presence of organic S and organic P containing compounds in the marine rainwater. Cluster analysis showed a clear chemical distinction between samples collected during the cold season (October to March) which have anthropogenic air mass origins and samples collected during the warm season (April to September) with remote marine air mass origins. This, in conjunction with patterns identified in van Krevelen diagrams, suggests that the cold season WSON is a mixture of organic matter with both marine and anthropogenic sources while in the warm season the WSON appears to be dominated by marine sources. These findings indicate that, although the concentrations and percent contribution of WSON to total N is fairly consistent across diverse geographic regions, the chemical composition of WSON varies strongly as a function of source region and atmospheric environment.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 04/2012; 12(7):3557-3571. DOI:10.5194/acp-12-3557-2012 · 5.30 Impact Factor