Transforming growth factor-beta, Smad, and collagen expression patterns in fetal and adult keratinocytes.
ABSTRACT The transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. To better define the influence of keratinocyte-derived TGF-beta during development and repair, the authors examined the TGF-beta isoform, receptor, signal messenger Smad, and collagen type I expression in fetal and postnatal keratinocytes.
Sprague-Dawley rat keratinocytes were isolated in primary culture from fetal E17 (n = 6), newborn (n = 4), and 6-week-old adults (n = 4). Under serum-free conditions, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 ligands; TGF-beta receptor 1 (RI) and TGF-beta receptor 2 (RII); Smad4 and Smad7; and collagen type I expression.
Total TGF-beta isoform expression increased 1.7-fold from E17 to newborn (p < 0.05) and adult (p < 0.01) ages. TGF-beta1 expression was 25-fold greater than TGF-beta2 and 10-fold greater than TGF-beta3 in fetal keratinocytes (p < 0.01 for each). The expression of TGF-beta1 was fivefold greater compared with TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 in newborn and adult keratinocytes (p < 0.01). TGF-beta-RI expression increased more than twofold (p < 0.01), whereas TGF-beta-RII expression increased by 25 percent (p < 0.01) from E17 to adult age. Smad4 increased more than twofold (p < 0.01), whereas Smad7 did not change appreciably. Collagen type I expression increased over 100-fold from E17 to adult (p < 0.005).
The TGF-beta system and collagen type I have increased expression with increasing gestational age in keratinocytes. This suggests an increased profibrotic TGF-beta response and collagen type I production in keratinocytes during skin differentiation at ages associated with scarring.
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ABSTRACT: Previously, we demonstrated the rapid closure of mid-gestational excisional murine wounds at 32 hours. In this study, we theorized that mid-gestational wounds would be completely regenerated, whereas late-gestational wounds would heal with scar formation at 48 hours. Furthermore, we theorized that mid- and late-gestational fibroblasts differentially use the transforming growth factor beta and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Three-millimeter excisional cutaneous wounds were made on murine mid- (embryonic day 15 [E15]) and late-gestational (E18) fetuses and harvested at 48 hours for histology. Percent wound closure was calculated. E15 and E18 fibroblasts were cultured overnight for in vitro scratch wound assay in the presence of the activin receptor-like kinase 4-5-7, Erk1/2, and p38 inhibitors. E15 wounds healed in a regenerative manner, whereas E18 wounds exhibited scar formation. In vitro scratch closure was similar in the E15 and E18 groups at 8 hours; yet, it increased in E15 compared with E18 groups with activin receptor-like kinase 4-5-7 and Erk1/2 inhibitors. p38 inhibition resulted in reduced scratch closure in both groups. The scarless mid-gestational excisional wounds compared with the scar-forming late-gestational wounds provides a model to study scar formation. This study also suggests that variable transforming growth factor beta and Erk1/2 signaling may influence differences in wound closure between mid- and late-gestational wounds.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 07/2008; 43(6):971-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2008.02.020 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Smad signaling pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis and progression in cancer (Halder, S.K., Rachakonda, G., Deane, N.G., Datta, P.K., 2008. Smad7 induces hepatic metastasis in colorectal cancer. Br. J. Cancer 99, 957-965). The protein level of Smad is associated with growth, inhibition, and metastasis in different cancers. It is unclear if the differentiation, metastasis and apoptosis are reduced by Smad expression pattern in gastric cancer. To determine the effect of Smad on gastric cancer cells, we investigated the relationship of Smad4/Smad7 expression, and differentiation, metastasis, and apoptosis in different gastric cancer. The results show that Smad4 expression in the gastric cancer tissue was dramatically lower than that in the peritumoral tissue. A lower expression of Samd4 was significantly lower in the poorly differentiated tissue than that in the well and middle differentiated tissues (P<0.01). In contrast, Smad7 expression in gastric cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the peritumoral tissue. Smad7 was overexpressed in poorly differentiated tissue, also higher than those in the middle, and well differentiated tissues (P<0.05). The Smad4 or Smad7 expression obviously related with the lymphatic metastasis in gastric cancer. There were 45 cases with lymphatic metastasis in all 78 patients. Smad4 expression in the cases with lymphatic metastasis was lower than the cases without metastasis (P<0.01), whereas Smad7 expression in the cases with lymphatic metastasis was much higher than the case without metastasis (P<0.01). To better understand the mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer, we established SGC7901 gastric cancer cell lines transduced with Smad4 or Smad7 plasmid DNA. Apoptosis and survival of cancer cells was induced after Smad4 and Smad7 transduction. This effect is concentration and time dependent. Thus, this study provides a mechanism by which a balance between Smad4 and Smad7 in human gastric cancer is critical for differentiation, metastasis, and apoptosis of tumor cells.Experimental and Molecular Pathology 03/2009; 87(1):48-53. DOI:10.1016/j.yexmp.2009.03.003 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has been thought to play a major role during cardiac fibrosis in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, and cardiac fibrosis mainly as a result of an increase of collagen type III occurs in the human hearts with diabetes. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been reported to activate the latent complex of TGF-β1. We examined the effects of TSP-1 on the expression of TGF-β1 and collagen type III by rat cardiac fibroblasts in high ambient glucose. We demonstrated that high glucose induces the mRNA and protein expression of collagen type III, TGF-β1, and TSP-1. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression of collagen type III induced by high glucose was downregulated after treatment with TGF-β1 antibody, or TSP-1 siRNA. The expression of TGF-β1 increased by high glucose was also reversed after treatment with TSP-1 siRNA. Our findings suggest that the TSP-1 participates in the upregulation of TGF-β1, collagen type III by high glucose and may provide new therapeutic strategies for diabetic cardiomyopathy.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 09/2010; 346(1-2):49-56. DOI:10.1007/s11010-010-0590-7 · 2.39 Impact Factor