Underestimation of Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia at MRI-Guided 9-Gauge Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy

Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave., New York, NY 10021, USA.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 04/2007; 188(3):684-90. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.06.0809
Source: PubMed


The purposes of this study were to determine the frequency of diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at MRI-guided 9-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy and to assess the rate of underestimation of ADH at subsequent surgical excision.
We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 237 lesions consecutively detected with MRI and then subjected to MRI-guided 9-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy during a 33-month period. Underestimated ADH was defined as a lesion yielding ADH at vacuum-assisted biopsy and cancer at surgery. Scientific tables were used to calculate 95% CI.
Histologic analysis of MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy specimens yielded ADH without cancer in 15 (6%) of 237 lesions. Among 15 patients in whom vacuum-assisted breast biopsy yielded ADH, the median age was 52 years (range, 46-68 years). The median number of specimens obtained was nine (range, 8-18 lesions). Median MRI lesion diameter was 1.3 cm (range, 0.7-7.0 cm). Among 15 MRI lesions, 10 (67%) were nonmasslike enhancement and five (33%) were masses. Surgical excision was performed on 13 lesions. Surgical histologic findings were malignancy in five (38%) of the cases, all ductal carcinoma in situ; high-risk lesion in six (46%) of the cases, including ADH without other high-risk lesions (n = 2), ADH and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (n = 1), ADH, LCIS, and papilloma (n =1), ADH and papilloma (n = 1), and LCIS (n = 1); and benign in two (15%) of the cases. These data indicated an ADH underestimation rate of 38% (95% CI, 14-68%).
ADH without cancer was encountered in 6% of MRI-guided 9-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsies. ADH at MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is an indication for surgical excision because of the high (38%) frequency of underestimation of these lesions.

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    • "Liberman et al., (2002) have shown that to 'excise' of to 'sample' a lesion does not exert a significant effect on ADH underestimation; however, the distinction between 'excision' and 'sampling' was made within a range of less specimens, i.e. between 4 and 47 (median 15) specimens [36]. Nonetheless, and given that recent studies on MRI-guided VABB with 9G needle did not diminish underestimation of ADH [37], ADH still remains an entity on which extended protocols should be tested. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB) is effective for the preoperative diagnosis of non-palpable mammographic solid lesions. The main disadvantage is underestimation, which might render the management of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) difficult. This study aims to develop and assess a modified way of performing VABB. A total of 107 women with non-palpable mammographic breast solid tumors BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB with 11G, on the stereotactic Fischer's table. 54 women were allocated to the recommended protocol and 24 cores were obtained according to the consensus meeting in Nordesterdt (1 offset-main target in the middle of the lesion and one offset inside). 53 women were randomly allocated to the extended protocol and 96 cores were excised (one offset-main target in the middle of the lesion and 7 peripheral offsets). A preoperative diagnosis was established. Women with a preoperative diagnosis of precursor/preinvasive/invasive lesion underwent open surgery. A second pathologist, blind to the preoperative results and to the protocol made the postoperative diagnosis. The percentage of the surface excised via VABB was retrospectively calculated on the mammogram. The discrepancy between preoperative and postoperative diagnoses along with the protocol adopted and the volume removed were evaluated by Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, respectively. Irrespectively of the protocol adopted, 82.2% of the lesions were benign. 14.0% of the lesions were malignancies (5.1% of BI-RADS 3, 5.3% of BI-RADS 4A, 25% of BI-RADS 4B, and 83.3% of BI-RADS 4C lesions). 3.7% of the biopsies were precursor lesions. There was no evidence of underestimation in either protocols. In the standard protocol, the preoperative/postoperative diagnoses were identical. In the extended protocol, the postoperative diagnosis was less severe than the preoperative in 55.5% of cases (55.5% vs. 0%, p = 0.029), and preoperative ADH was totally removed. The phenomenon of discrepancy between diagnoses was associated with larger volume removed (8.20 +/- 1.10 vs. 3.32 +/- 3.50 cm3, p = 0.037) and higher removed percentage of the lesion (97.83 +/- 4.86% vs. 74.34 +/- 23.43%, p = 0.024) The extended protocol seems to totally excise precursor lesions, with minimal underestimation. This might possibly point to a modified management of ADH lesions.
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