Article

Seasonal changes in VO2max among Division 1A collegiate women soccer players.

Department of Exercise Science, George Washington University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 1.86). 02/2007; 21(1):48-51. DOI: 10.1519/R-18035.1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aerobic capacity and body composition were measured at 3 time points over a 1-year period in 26 Division 1A women soccer players from Texas A&M University, in order to determine whether there were seasonal changes in these parameters. Subjects were tested in December, immediately following a 4-month competitive season; in April, following 15 weeks of strength and conditioning; and immediately prior to the start of the regular season in August, following a 12-week summer strength and conditioning program. A periodized strength and conditioning program design was incorporated in order to optimize anaerobic and oxidative capacity immediately prior to the regular competitive season. Significant differences in VO2max were measured between August (49.24 +/- 4.38 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and December (44.87 +/- 4.61 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). No significant changes in aerobic capacity were found between April (47.43 +/- 4.01 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and August (49.64 +/- 5.25 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Significant increases in body fat were measured between August (15.71 +/- 2.92%) and December (18.78 +/- 2.79%), before and after the competitive season, respectively. No significant changes in body fat were found between April (16.24 +/- 2.95%) and August (15.71 +/- 2.92%). The results of this study suggest that decreases in muscle mass over the course of a regular competitive season contribute to decreases in aerobic capacity in collegiate women soccer players. Although it is unknown whether this decrease in muscle mass is the result of inadequate training or a normal adaptation to the physiological demands imposed by soccer, the results of the current study suggest that resistance training volume should be maintained during the competitive season, in order to maintain preseason levels of muscle mass.

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    • "16, 18 The study done by Clark et al. demonstrated a large increase in the VO2 max from pre to post season (from an average of 42.2 mL/kg*min pre-season to 50.0 mL/kg*min post-season) which we would expect due to structured and rigorous training schedule required in team training. However, in the study done by Miller et al. (2007) the authors reported a decrease in average VO2 max from pre to post season (49.24 to 44.87 mL/kg*min), something we would not of suspected. These data illustrate the extent of variability that is possible between groups of athletes possibly due to factors such as different training techniques, game and practice schedules, overtraining, dietary issues, and athlete motivation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the VO2 max values of college soccer players at the University of New Mexico to data available from other collegiate teams. These values are beneficial for athletes, trainers, and coaches alike. Performance in athletics has improved significantly over the past 20 years as demonstrated by faster times and increased fitness levels. This is due to multiple factors including changes in nutrition, coaching, and equipment. Methods used in this study include a review of the literature specific for collegiate soccer athletes that were published after the year 2000. In addition, data from athletes from men’s and women’s soccer teams at the University of New Mexico are included in our results. VO2 max values were obtained using a maximal exercise test performed on a treadmill. The compilation of a table from the gathered data on VO2max values of collegiate soccer players specific for gender and level of competition will be of significant value for training personnel and athletes involved in soccer and collegiate athletics. We have provided the first normative VO2 max values compiled from an extensive literature search as well as providing data we obtained from athletes at the University of New Mexico.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups.
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