Seasonal changes in VO2max among Division 1A collegiate women soccer players.
ABSTRACT Aerobic capacity and body composition were measured at 3 time points over a 1-year period in 26 Division 1A women soccer players from Texas A&M University, in order to determine whether there were seasonal changes in these parameters. Subjects were tested in December, immediately following a 4-month competitive season; in April, following 15 weeks of strength and conditioning; and immediately prior to the start of the regular season in August, following a 12-week summer strength and conditioning program. A periodized strength and conditioning program design was incorporated in order to optimize anaerobic and oxidative capacity immediately prior to the regular competitive season. Significant differences in VO2max were measured between August (49.24 +/- 4.38 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and December (44.87 +/- 4.61 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). No significant changes in aerobic capacity were found between April (47.43 +/- 4.01 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and August (49.64 +/- 5.25 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Significant increases in body fat were measured between August (15.71 +/- 2.92%) and December (18.78 +/- 2.79%), before and after the competitive season, respectively. No significant changes in body fat were found between April (16.24 +/- 2.95%) and August (15.71 +/- 2.92%). The results of this study suggest that decreases in muscle mass over the course of a regular competitive season contribute to decreases in aerobic capacity in collegiate women soccer players. Although it is unknown whether this decrease in muscle mass is the result of inadequate training or a normal adaptation to the physiological demands imposed by soccer, the results of the current study suggest that resistance training volume should be maintained during the competitive season, in order to maintain preseason levels of muscle mass.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine physiological characteristics of different positions in collegiate women’s football players. Twenty-one female players (age: 19.4±0.9 years old, 5 forwards, 6 midfielders, 8 defenders, 2 goalkeepers) belonging to the Aichi women’s football division I league participated in this study. Three types of vertical jumps, maximal anaerobic power, 20m sprint, step-50, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 were measured before the 2012 season. There was no significant difference among different positions because players had various playing experience in this team. In this study, physical performance, especially repeated intense performance, should be improved in order to increase the competitive standard.
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ABSTRACT: The number of scientific investigations on women’s football specific to the topics of player characteristics and demands of the game have considerably increased in recent years due to the increased popularity of the women’s game worldwide, although they are not yet as numerous as in the case of men’s football. To date, only two scientific publications have attempted to review the main findings of studies published in this area. However, one of them was published about 20 years ago, when women’s football was still in its infancy and there were only a few studies to report on. The other review is more recent. Nonetheless, its main focus was on the game and training demands of senior elite female players. Thus, information on female footballers of lower competitive levels and younger age groups was not included. Consequently, an updated review is needed in this area. The present article therefore aims to provide an overview of a series of studies that have been published so far on the specific characteristics of female football players and the demands of match-play. Mean values reported in the literature for age (12-27 years), body height (155-174 cm), body mass (48-72 kg), percent body fat (13%-29%), maximal oxygen uptake (45.1-55.5 mL/kg/min), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (780-1379 m), maximum heart rate (189-202 bpm), 30-m sprint times (4.34-4.96 s), and counter-movement jump or vertical jump (28-50 cm) vary mostly according to the players’ competitive level and positional role. There are also some special considerations that coaches and other practitioners should be aware of when working with female athletes such as the menstrual cycle, potential pregnancy and lactation, common injury risks (particularly knee and head injuries) and health concerns (e.g., female athlete triad, iron deficiency, and anemia) that may affect players’ football performance, health or return to play. Reported mean values for total distance covered (4-13 km), distance covered at high-speed (0.2-1.7 km), average/peak heart rate (74%-87%/94%-99% HRmax), average/peak oxygen uptake (52%-77%/96%-98% VO2max), and blood lactate (2.2-7.3 mmol/L) during women’s football match-play vary according to the players’ competitive level and positional role. Methodological differences may account for the discrepancy of the reported values as well. Finally, this review also aims to identify literature gaps that require further scientific research in women’s football and to derive a few practical recommendations. The information presented in this report provides an objective point of reference about player characteristics and game demands at various levels of women’s football, which can help coaches and sport scientists to design more effective training programs and science-based strategies for the further improvement of players’ football performance, health, game standards, and positive image of this sport.Journal of Sport and Health Science 12/2014; 3(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.10.001 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups.02/2010; 1(1).