Dynamic changes in GABAA receptors on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons following sleep deprivation and recovery.
ABSTRACT The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons play an important role in cortical activation and arousal and are active in association with cortical activation of waking and inactive in association with cortical slow wave activity of sleep. In view of findings that GABAA receptors (Rs) and inhibitory transmission undergo dynamic changes as a function of prior activity, we investigated whether the GABAARs on cholinergic cells might undergo such changes as a function of their prior activity during waking vs. sleep.
In the brains of rats under sleep control (SC), sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep recovery (SR) conditions in the 3 hours prior to sacrifice, we examined immunofluorescent staining for beta2-3 subunit GABAARs on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunopositive (+) cells in the magnocellular BF. In sections also stained for c-Fos, beta2-3 GABAARs were present on ChAT+ neurons which expressed c-Fos in the SD group alone and were variable or undetectable on other ChAT+ cells across groups. In dual-immunostained sections, the luminance of beta2-3 GABAARs over the membrane of ChAT+ cells was found to vary significantly across conditions and to be significantly higher in SD than SC or SR groups.
We conclude that membrane GABAARs increase on cholinergic cells as a result of activity during sustained waking and reciprocally decrease as a result of inactivity during sleep. These changes in membrane GABAARs would be associated with increased GABA-mediated inhibition of cholinergic cells following prolonged waking and diminished inhibition following sleep and could thus reflect a homeostatic process regulating cholinergic cell activity and thereby indirectly cortical activity across the sleep-waking cycle.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Barbara E Jones, Sep 18, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Jacqueline Vazquez-DeRose[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neurons provide excitatory input to wake-promoting brain regions including the basal forebrain (BF). The dual HCRT receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases waking and increases sleep. We hypothesized that HCRT antagonists induce sleep, in part, through disfacilitation of BF neurons; consequently, ALM should have reduced efficacy in BF-lesioned (BFx) animals. To test this hypothesis, rats were given bilateral IgG-192-saporin injections, which predominantly targets cholinergic BF neurons. BFx and intact rats were then given oral ALM, the benzodiazepine agonist zolpidem (ZOL) or vehicle (VEH) at lights-out. ALM was less effective than ZOL at inducing sleep in BFx rats compared to controls. BF adenosine (ADO), γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), and glutamate levels were then determined via microdialysis from intact, freely behaving rats following oral ALM, ZOL or VEH. ALM increased BF ADO and GABA levels during waking and mixed vigilance states, and preserved sleep-associated increases in GABA under low and high sleep pressure conditions. ALM infusion into the BF also enhanced cortical ADO release, demonstrating that HCRT input is critical for ADO signaling in the BF. In contrast, oral ZOL and BF-infused ZOL had no effect on ADO levels in either BF or cortex. ALM increased BF ADO (an endogenous sleep-promoting substance) and GABA (which is increased during normal sleep), and required an intact BF for maximal efficacy, whereas ZOL blocked sleep-associated BF GABA release, and required no functional contribution from the BF to induce sleep. ALM thus induces sleep by facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the normal transition to sleep.Brain Structure and Function 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00429-014-0946-y · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The integration of multiple imaging modalities is becoming an increasingly well used research strategy for studying the human brain. The neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA particularly lend themselves towards such studies. This is because these transmitters are ubiquitous throughout the cortex, where they are the key constituents of the inhibition/excitation balance, and because they can be easily measured in vivo through magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as with select positron emission tomography approaches. How these transmitters underly functional responses measured with techniques such as fMRI and EEG remains unclear though, and was the target of this review. Consistently shown in the literature was a negative correlation between GABA concentrations and stimulus-induced activity within the measured region. Also consistently found was a positive correlation between glutamate concentrations and inter-regional activity relationships, both during tasks and rest. These findings are outlined along with results from populations with mental disorders to give an overview of what brain imaging has suggested to date about the biochemical underpinnings of functional activity in health and disease. We conclude that the combination of functional and biochemical imaging in humans is an increasingly informative approach that does however require a number of key methodological and interpretive issues be addressed before can meet its potential.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 07/2014; 47. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.07.016 · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Orexins are bioactive peptides, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in vigilance state transitions: the loss of orexin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) leads to narcolepsy with cataplexy in the human. However, the effect of the need for sleep (i.e., sleep pressure) on orexin neurons remains largely unknown. Here, we found that immunostaining intensities of the α1 subunit of the GABAA receptor and neuroligin 2, which is involved in inhibitory synapse specialization, on orexin neurons were significantly increased by 6 h sleep deprivation. In contrast, we noted that immunostaining intensities of the α2, γ2, and β2/3 subunits of the GABAA receptor and Huntingtin-associated protein 1, which is involved in GABAAR trafficking, were not changed by 6h sleep deprivation. Using a slice patch recording, orexin neurons demonstrated increased sensitivity to a GABAA receptor agonist together with synaptic plasticity changes after sleep deprivation when compared with an ad lib sleep condition. In summary, the GABAergic input property of orexin neurons responds rapidly to sleep deprivation. This molecular response of orexin neurons may thus play a role in the changes that accompany the need for sleep following prolonged wakefulness, in particular the decreased probability of a transition to wakefulness once recovery sleep has begun.Neuroscience 10/2014; 284. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.09.063 · 3.33 Impact Factor