FK-506 extended the therapeutic time window for thrombolysis without increasing the risk of hemorrhagic transformation in an embolic rat stroke model.
ABSTRACT FK-506 confers a neuroprotective effect and is thought to extend the time window for thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischemia. These effects have not been assessed in an embolic stroke model. In addition, clinical studies have raised concern that FK-506 may increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation by damaging vascular endothelial cells. We investigated whether combined administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and FK-506 would extend the therapeutic time window without increasing the hemorrhagic transformation in a rat embolic stroke model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=66) were subjected to embolic infarction and assigned into eight groups. Six of the groups were treated with or without FK-506 (0.3 mg/kg) administration at 60 min after embolization, together with and all six groups received systemic rt-PA administration (10 mg/kg) at 60, 90, or 120 min. Two permanent ischemia groups were administered saline either with or without FK-506. Infarct and hemorrhagic volume were assessed at 24 h after embolization. Diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in the groups administered rt-PA at 90 min and a vehicle control group to assess whether FK-506 influenced the effectiveness of MRI in revealing ischemic lesion. FK-506 extended the therapeutic time window for systemic thrombolysis compared to rt-PA alone without increasing the risk for hemorrhage. Combined therapy with FK-506 salvaged some of the MRI, revealing ischemic lesions destined to infarction in the animals treated by rt-PA alone. Single low dose of FK-506 alone did not ameliorate the embolic infarction, but it did prove effective in extending the therapeutic time windows for thrombolysis without increasing the risk of hemorrhagic transformation.
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ABSTRACT: About 15 million strokes occur each year worldwide. As the number one cause of morbidity and acquired disability, stroke is a major drain on public health-care funding, due to long hospital stays followed by ongoing support in the community or nursing-home care. Although during the last 10 years we have witnessed a remarkable progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, reperfusion induced by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA-Actilyse) remains the only approved acute treatment by the health authorities. The objective of the present review is to provide an overview of our present knowledge about the impact of tPA on the neurovascular unit during acute ischemic stroke.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 08/2011; 31(11):2119-34. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here, we describe a therapeutic strategy for attenuating hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Recent studies have shown that tPA treatment is beneficial within 4.5 h of onset for patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, the risk of serious or fatal symptomatic hemorrhage increases with delayed initiation of treatment. HT is considered to be caused by ischemic/reperfusion injury, as well as the toxicity of tPA itself. Therapeutic strategies to attenuate HT after tPA treatment might involve (i) identification of risk factors for HT after tPA treatment and (ii) the development of thrombolytic drugs, which are less likely to cause bleeding, or drugs that can be concomitantly administered for vascular protection. Several studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinases and free radicals are potential therapeutic targets. In addition, we recently showed that inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway might be a promising therapeutic strategy for attenuating HT after tPA treatment. Further studies are required to link the results obtained in experimental animal models to human clinical trials.Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience. 12/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been shown to reduce ischemic neuronal injury. We investigated the effects of ethyl-EPA (EPA-E) on ischemic brain damage using a rat transient focal cerebral ischemia model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=105) were subjected to 90minutes of focal cerebral ischemia. EPA-E (100mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered once a day for 3, 5 or 7 days prior to ischemia. Different withdrawal intervals of 3, 5, and 7 days prior to ischemia following 7-day pretreatment with EPA-E or vehicle were also examined. In addition, post-ischemic administration of EPA-E was investigated. Pretreatment with EPA-E for 7 and 5 days, but not 3 days, showed significant infarct volume reduction and neurological improvements when compared with vehicle pretreatment. In addition, withdrawal of EPA-E administration for 3 days, but not 5 and 7 days, also demonstrated significant infarct volume reduction and neurological improvements when compared with vehicle treatment. Post-ischemic treatment of EPA-E did not show any neuroprotection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 7-day pretreatment with EPA-E significantly reduced cortical expression of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (maker for oxidative DNA damage), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (maker for lipid peroxidation), phosphorylated adducin (marker for Rho-kinase activation) and von Willebrand factor (endothelial marker) when compared with vehicle pretreatment. In addition, phosphorylated adducin expression co-localized with von Willebrand factor immunoreactivity. The present study established the neuroprotective effect of EPA-E on ischemic brain damage following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats, which may be involved in the suppression of oxidative stress and endothelial Rho-kinase activation.Brain research 05/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor