Expression and immunolocalisation of antimicrobial peptides within human palatine tonsils
ABSTRACT Recurrent acute tonsillitis is one of the most frequent ENT referrals, yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood, and tonsillectomy still costs the National Health Service more than pound 60,000000 annually. Antimicrobial cationic peptides are components of the innate immune system. They are generally small, highly positively charged peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which function as the body's 'natural antibiotics'. The role of antimicrobial cationic peptides in the susceptibility of patients to recurrent acute tonsillitis is unknown.
To characterise and compare antimicrobial cationic peptide expression and localisation in human palatine tonsils from control subjects and recurrent acute tonsillitis patients, and to assess the potential role of these peptides in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis.
Palatine tonsils were harvested with informed consent from 19 recurrent acute tonsillitis patients and from five control subjects undergoing tonsillectomy for sleep disorders. Total ribonucleic acid was isolated and antimicrobial cationic peptide expression was characterised using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Fluorescent immunohistochemical techniques were used to localise antimicrobial cationic peptides within fresh frozen tonsil sections.
Using molecular analyses, the palatine tonsils from control and recurrent acute tonsillitis subjects were confirmed as a site of expression of the antimicrobial cationic peptides human beta-defensin 1-3, LL-37 (cathelicidin) and Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide-1 (LEAP-1). We also demonstrated for the first time the expression of Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2). Our analyses indicated that all six antimicrobial cationic peptides were expressed in all 26 tonsil samples. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the antimicrobial cationic peptides were localised to the tonsil surface and crypt epithelium. However, the surface epithelium of tonsils from recurrent acute tonsillitis patients showed reduced amounts of antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensins 1 and 3, and LL-37, compared with healthy controls.
The tonsil epithelium synthesizes an array of antimicrobial cationic peptides which function as host defence. Preliminary immunohistochemical data suggest that the surface epithelium of tonsils from recurrent acute tonsillitis patients contains reduced amounts of such peptides, which may increase these patients' susceptibility to infection.
- SourceAvailable from: Jindrich Martínek[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The nasal and tonsillar mucosa are exposed to massive incursions of pathological microorganisms. One ofthe mechanisms known to prevent an invasion of pathogens is an endogenous synthesis of antimicrobialpeptides, which include human β-defensins-1, 2, 3 (HBD-1, 2, 3).The aim of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of HBD-1, 2 and 3 in the human nasal mucosaand palatine tonsils in healthy tissues and during chronic inflammation (nasal polyposis with and without thecolonization of Staphylococcus aureus and chronic tonsillitis) and to evaluate their incidence under varyingconditions.Another target was to compare the occurrence of human β-defensins in these two different entities; thatis, in the nasal mucosa and in the palatine tonsil.It was assumed that the incidence of HBD-1, 2, 3 was lower in tonsils than in nasal mucosa; however,inflamed samples of tonsils and nasal mucosa showed no difference in the production of HBD-1, 2, 3. Thepresence of all three subfamilies of HBD was significantly lower in nasal polyps with S. aureus positive thanin the negative control.
Conference Paper: Study on development of 110kV vacuum circuit breaker in China[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current situation in the application of vacuum circuit breakers in China was investigated in addition to the analysis of their future prospects in the developed countries. Furthermore, practical significance and possible conditions in the exploration of vacuum circuit breaker in China were verified. Also, the manufacturing and design base will be set up in China soon, and the preparative works of designing and making vacuum interrupters and actuators are underway.Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum, 2002. 20th International Symposium on; 02/2002
- Advances in applied microbiology 02/2008; 63:281-322. DOI:10.1016/S0065-2164(07)00008-1 · 2.24 Impact Factor