A new protein-based approach has been developed for the construction of light-harvesting systems through self-assembly. The building blocks were prepared by attaching fluorescent chromophores to cysteine residues introduced on tobacco mosaic virus coat protein monomers. When placed under the appropriate buffer conditions, these conjugates could be assembled into stacks of disks or into rods that reached hundreds of nanometers in length. Characterization of the system using fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that efficient energy transfer could be achieved from large numbers of donor chromophores to a single acceptor. Energy transfer is proposed to occur through direct donor-acceptor interactions, although degenerate donor-to-donor transfer events are also possible. Three-chromophore systems were also prepared to achieve broad spectrum light collection with over 90% overall efficiency. Through the combination of self-organizing biological structures and synthetic building blocks, a highly tunable new method has emerged for the construction of photovoltaic device components.
"The symmetry of CP side chains within an assembled ePVN provides a means to spatially array light harvesting chromophores on a molecular scale that mimics the photosynthetic antenna complexes of plants. Several studies have used TMV CPs to assemble arrays of donor and acceptor chromophores from which energy transfer and light harvesting activity were readily measured (Endo et al., 2007; Miller et al., 2007, 2010). In these studies chromophores were cross-linked to engineered amino acids designed to position the aromatic chromophores within the inner channel or along the surface of assembled structures. "
"Some shapes are quite sophisticated; for example, T4 and T7 phages possess an icosahedral head and a long tail connected through a cylindrical body . Over the last two decades, the biochemical landscape of the phage structure has been greatly expanded through genetic engineering     and site-specific organic synthesis approaches    . Through "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials are necessary to be developed for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Nanobiomaterials can be engineered to recognize cancer-specific receptors at the cellular levels and to deliver anticancer drugs into the diseased sites. In particular, nanobiomaterial-based nanocarriers, so-called nanoplatforms, are the design of the targeted delivery systems such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles/micelles, nanoconjugates, norganic materials, carbon-based nanobiomaterials, and bioinspired phage system, which are based on the nanosize of 1-100 nm in diameter. In this review, the design and the application of these nanoplatforms are discussed at the cellular levels as well as in the clinics. We believe that this review can offer recent advances in the targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials regarding in vitro and in vivo applications and the translation of nanobiomaterials to nanomedicine in anticancer therapy.
"Researchers have begun to harness this extraordinary assembly capability to make a variety of devices by integrating peptides or proteins which are able to bind technologically significant materials into the structural proteins of viruses. This approach has allowed the realization of unique device geometries, as well as the opportunity for enhanced performance and functionality     . One area of viral-assisted assembly that has yet to be fully explored is the formation of core–shell materials. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individual viral-templated Au/CdSe core–shell nanowires were synthesized and electrically characterized at room temperature. The Au nanowire cores were constructed using a genetically-modified filamentous M13 bacteriophage as a scaffold. Au nanoparticles were selectively bound to the viruses and used as seeds for electroless deposition, forming continuous Au nanowires. The nanocrystalline CdSe shell material which formed a coaxial heterojunction with the Au nanowire was created by electrodeposition. Electrical characterization of the Au nanowires revealed resistance variations associated with the viral-templated assembly process. The photoelectrical response of the core–shell nanowires was used to assess the interaction between the two component materials. A correlation was found between the dark current of the Au/CdSe core–shell nanowire and the magnitude of the collected photocurrent.
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