Oxidative stress in response to xenobiotics in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L.: evidence for variation along a natural salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea.
ABSTRACT Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) collected at three sampling sites in each of three geographical regions (South, Middle, North) along the permanent longitudinal South-North salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea, were exposed for 10 days to copper (35ppb) or 95 octane petrol (0.3 per thousand). During the experiment, they were maintained at the respective sampling site salinity. Scope for growth (SFG) was determined, and biochemical stress markers (protein carbonyl groups, disulfide bond formation, and glutathione transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT) activities) were investigated in gill tissue upon termination of the experiment. Treatment and regional effects for SFG and protein carbonyl groups were all significant for petrol. The largest increase in protein carbonyl groups was observed in the North. Mussels from the southern, more saline ( approximately 7 per thousand) region had the highest SFG, and displayed the largest SFG decrease in response to treatment, indicating that they had the most energy available for allocation to stress response. They also displayed the least increase in the level of protein carbonyl groups. Mussels from the Northern, less saline ( approximately 5%) region had the highest degree of protein carbonyl groups in response to both treatments, and lowest average SFG. Silver stained diagonal gels for samples from one sampling site in South and North, respectively, demonstrated differences in disulfide bond profiles for both stress treatments. There was also a regional difference in the number of protein disulfides observed on diagonal gels. The most diverse protein disulfide response was found in South. No treatment related effects on GST and CAT activities were observed. We suggest that both SFG and protein carbonyl groups show that geographical difference in stress susceptibility, previously established between the North and the Baltic Seas, also apply on a regional scale within the Baltic Sea, along the salinity gradient.
SourceAvailable from: Zhenghong Zuo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is a growing recognition that the toxic effects of chemical mixtures are been an important issue in toxicological sciences. Tributyltin (TBT) and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are widespread pollutants that occur simultaneously in the aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine comprehensively the combined effects of TBT and BaP on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using toxicogenomic approach combined with biochemical detection and morphological analysis, and tried to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the combined effects of TBT and BaP. The results of toxicogenomic data indicated that: 1) TBT cotreatment rescued the embryos from decreased hatching ratio caused by BaP alone, while the alteration of gene expression (in this article the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym to gene transcription, although in is acknowledged that gene expression can also be regulated by, e.g., translation and mRNA or protein stability) relative to zebrafish hatching in the BaP groups was resumed by the cotreatment with TBT; 2) BaP cotreatment decreased TBT-mediated dorsal curvature, and alleviated the perturbation of Notch pathway caused by TBT alone; 3) cotreatment with TBT decreased BaP-mediated bradycardia, which might be due to that TBT cotreatment alleviated the perturbation in expression of genes related to cardiac muscle cell development and calcium handling caused by BaP alone; 4) TBT cotreatment brought an antagonistic effect on the BaP-mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage. These results suggested that toxicogenomic approach was available for analyzing combined toxicity with high sensitivity and accuracy, which might improve our understanding and predictability for the combined effects of chemicals.Aquatic Toxicology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.10.024 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed at analyzing the impact of a toxic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), anthracene (ANT), on Ruditapes decussatus collected from a Tunisian coastal lagoon (Bizerte Lagoon). Filtration rates, several antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione transferase (GST)-as well as indices of protein oxidation status were determined in various tissues of this bivalve. Specimens were exposed to 100 μg/L of ANT for 2 days. ANT levels were evaluated using HPLC and were detected in the gill and digestive gland at different amounts. ANT exposure altered the behavior of bivalves by changing the siphon movement and decreasing filtration rate significantly. The enzymatic results indicated that ANT exposure affected the oxidative stress status of the gills of R. decussatus. In addition, modification of proteins was detected in the gills using redox proteomics after ANT treatment. Three protein spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). These proteins can be roughly related to muscle contraction function. In contrast, no significant modification of enzymatic and protein responses was detected in the digestive gland after ANT treatment. These data demonstrate that combined behavioral and biochemical analyses are a powerful tool to provide valuable insights into possible mechanisms of toxicity of anthracene in R. decussatus. Additionally, the results highlight the potential of the gill as a valuable candidate for investigating PAH toxicity.
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ABSTRACT: We assessed toxicity of Anthracene, Permethrin and their mixture on clams.•Tissue and stressor-dependent changes were observed in biochemical responses.•Permethrin induces phase transition from aragonite to calcite in shell structure.•Interactive effects were observed on digestive gland and gill biomarkers.•Both approaches give new vision to risk assessment of organic pollution.Aquatic Toxicology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.10.020 · 3.51 Impact Factor