A route to the brightest possible neutron source?
ABSTRACT We review the potential to develop sources for neutron scattering science and propose that a merger with the rapidly developing field of inertial fusion energy could provide a major step-change in performance. In stark contrast to developments in synchrotron and laser science, the past 40 years have seen only a factor of 10 increase in neutron source brightness. With the advent of thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory, coupled to innovative approaches in how this may be achieved, we calculate that a neutron source three orders of magnitude more powerful than any existing facility can be envisaged on a 20- to 30-year time scale. Such a leap in source power would transform neutron scattering science.
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ABSTRACT: Tokamak-based MW-range fusion neutron sources are needed for the development of innovative neutron technologies, mainly for the control of sub-critical active zones of fast nuclear reactors, for closing the nuclear fuel cycle, for neutron research purposes and also for nuclear technologies relevant to DEMO. In this paper a possibility of reducing the tokamak size while achieving steady-state plasma discharges with the fusion power up to 10 MW is discussed. It is assumed that the total auxiliary heating and current drive power does not exceed 15 MW and the total power consumption is below 30 MW. The possible parameter options and operation scenarios are described.Fusion Engineering, 2009. SOFE 2009. 23rd IEEE/NPSS Symposium on; 07/2009
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ABSTRACT: Crystallography supplies unparalleled detail on structural information critical for mechanistic analyses; however, it is restricted to describing low energy conformations of macromolecules within crystal lattices. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) offers complementary information about macromolecular folding, unfolding, aggregation, extended conformations, flexibly linked domains, shape, conformation, and assembly state in solution, albeit at the lower resolution range of about 50 A to 10 A resolution, but without the size limitations inherent in NMR and electron microscopy studies. Together these techniques can allow multi-scale modeling to create complete and accurate images of macromolecules for modeling allosteric mechanisms, supramolecular complexes, and dynamic molecular machines acting in diverse processes ranging from eukaryotic DNA replication, recombination and repair to microbial membrane secretion and assembly systems. This review addresses both theoretical and practical concepts, concerns and considerations for using these techniques in conjunction with computational methods to productively combine solution scattering data with high-resolution structures. Detailed aspects of SAXS experimental results are considered with a focus on data interpretation tools suitable to model protein and nucleic acid macromolecular structures, including membrane protein, RNA, DNA, and protein-nucleic acid complexes. The methods discussed provide the basis to examine molecular interactions in solution and to study macromolecular flexibility and conformational changes that have become increasingly relevant for accurate understanding, simulation, and prediction of mechanisms in structural cell biology and nanotechnology.Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics 09/2007; 40(3):191-285. DOI:10.1017/S0033583507004635 · 10.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper the most promising technology for high power neutron sources is briefly discussed. The conclusion is that the route to high power neutron sources in the foreseeable future is spallation — short or long pulse or even CW — all of these sources will have areas in which they excel.Pramana 01/2008; 71(4):623-628. DOI:10.1007/s12043-008-0250-6 · 0.72 Impact Factor