A higher risk of meningitis associated with cochlear implants may be explained in part by a generally higher risk of meningitis in children with severe to profound hearing loss. We investigated whether children with hearing loss have an increased risk of meningitis.
A historical cohort study of all children born in Denmark between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2004, was conducted. The cohort was selected through the Danish Medical Birth Registry, and information on hearing loss and meningitis was obtained from the National Hospital Registry.
We identified 39 children with both hearing loss and meningitis. Of these children, five were diagnosed first with hearing loss and later with meningitis. The relative risk of meningitis in the group of children with a hearing loss diagnosis, as compared with the non-hearing loss group, was 5.0 (95% CI, 2.0 to 12.0).
The study provides evidence for an association between hearing loss and the development of meningitis. Parents and health care providers of children with hearing loss should be more alert for possible signs and symptoms of meningitis, and vaccination should be considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cooperation through mutual respect for one another's skills and opinions forms the backbone for successful col-laboration for the child and family's benefit. In an effort to create a timely diagnosis and early in-tervention, we have created a timeline for the events of the first year of life (figure 2). While not set in stone, we believe this serves as a rough guide for the events of the first year of life as it relates to hearing loss and its man-agement. The cornerstone goals of the first year are: (1) identification of hearing loss and establishing precise auditory thresholds; (2) diagnosis of the etiology for the hearing impair-ment; (3) intervention through provision of appropriate treatment and/or technologies; and (4) education by providing information for families to help make decisions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of cochlear implants is increasingly common, particularly in children younger than 3 years. Bacterial meningitis, often with associated acute otitis media, is more common in children with cochlear implants than in groups of control children. Children with profound deafness who are candidates for cochlear implants should receive all age-appropriate doses of pneumococcal conjugate and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines and appropriate annual immunization against influenza. In addition, starting at 24 months of age, a single dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine should be administered. Before implant surgery, primary care providers and cochlear implant teams should ensure that immunizations are up-to-date, preferably with completion of indicated vaccines at least 2 weeks before implant surgery. Imaging of the temporal bone/inner ear should be performed before cochlear implantation in all children with congenital deafness and all patients with profound hearing impairment and a history of bacterial meningitis to identify those with inner-ear malformations/cerebrospinal fluid fistulas or ossification of the cochlea. During the initial months after cochlear implantation, the risk of complications of acute otitis media may be higher than during subsequent time periods. Therefore, it is recommended that acute otitis media diagnosed during the first 2 months after implantation be initially treated with a parenteral antibiotic (eg, ceftriaxone or cefotaxime). Episodes occurring 2 months or longer after implantation can be treated with a trial of an oral antimicrobial agent (eg, amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate at a dose of approximately 90 mg/kg per day of amoxicillin component), provided the child does not appear toxic and the implant does not have a spacer/positioner, a wedge that rests in the cochlea next to the electrodes present in certain implant models available between 1999 and 2002. "Watchful waiting" without antimicrobial therapy is inappropriate for children with implants with acute otitis media. If feasible, tympanocentesis should be performed for acute otitis media, and the material should be sent for culture, but performance of this procedure should not result in an undue delay in initiating antimicrobial therapy. For patients with suspected meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid as well as middle-ear fluid, if present, should be sent for culture. Empiric antimicrobial therapy for meningitis occurring within 2 months of implantation should include an agent with broad activity against Gram-negative bacilli (eg, meropenem) plus vancomycin. For meningitis occurring 2 months or longer after implantation, standard empiric antimicrobial therapy for meningitis (eg, ceftriaxone plus vancomycin) is indicated. For patients with meningitis, urgent evaluation by an otolaryngologist is indicated for consideration of imaging and surgical exploration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the use of a state-maintained database (CHILD Profile) to monitor immunization status of pediatric cochlear implant recipients, and to assess compliance with current vaccination recommendations for cochlear implant users managed at Seattle Children's Hospital.
Tertiary academic pediatric hospital.
Subjects were 260 patients with cochlear implants managed at Seattle Children's Hospital between July 1, 1995, and May 1, 2008. Patients were stratified by age groups (0-2 years, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, > 10 years). Using a statewide children's immunization registry (CHILD Profile), subjects were assessed with regard to their immunization status for Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccination (HiB), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV-7), and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23).
Two hundred twenty-five of 260 subjects (87%) were registered in CHILD Profile; 126 of 225 (56%) were up to date with CDC recommendations for patients with cochlear implants. PPV-23 was the vaccination most likely to be incomplete. Age was predictive of immunization status only with HiB vaccination.
A statewide immunization registry can be used to monitor the immunization status of cochlear implant recipients. Subjects were significantly more likely to be incomplete for PPV-23 than for either PCV-7 or HiB vaccinations.
Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 10/2010; 143(4):487-91. DOI:10.1016/j.otohns.2010.05.020 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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