Indoleamine-dioxygenase is expressed in human decidua at the time maternal tolerance is established
ABSTRACT The semi-allogeneic fetus has to be tolerated by the maternal immune system. In mice, it has been shown that inhibiting indoleamine-dioxygenase (IDO) leads to fetal rejection, suggesting a central significance for IDO in establishing maternal tolerance. Consequently, we have analyzed IDO expression in human endometrium and decidua to determine whether it may be of significance in human reproduction. Endometrial (n=60) and decidual (n=68; first and second trimester) tissue samples and isolated cells were analyzed for IDO mRNA and protein expression by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. IDO expression in the decidua of proven fertile women (n=34) was compared to women presenting with their first pregnancy (n=22) and women with a history of miscarriages (n=12). Expression of IDO was localized in glandular epithelial cells and scattered stromal leukocytes. Expression started at the mid-luteal phase in the menstrual cycle and was high until the second trimester of pregnancy. However, glandular expression of IDO decreased during the second trimester, whereas expression in villous trophoblast started at this time. There were no significant differences in decidual IDO expression between proven fertile women and women presenting with their first pregnancy or women with a history of miscarriages. From the expression pattern we conclude that IDO may play a central role in human pregnancies for the establishment of maternal tolerance of fetal antigens. Thereby, IDO expression may be needed in each pregnancy independently from prior pregnancies, and a history of miscarriage may not reflect a general deficiency in IDO expression.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes precision frequency transfer via fiber-optic cable. The solution presented is oriented toward realising transfer system which will not introduce significant signal degradation while maintaining a low cost of apparatus. The solution makes use of the FDM technique, which enables the transfer of multiple signals through the same optical fiber. Bidirectional operation is obtained using two optical fibres. Results of short-term propagation delay stability of the transferred signal are reported.Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2002. IMTC/2002. Proceedings of the 19th IEEE; 02/2002
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ABSTRACT: Indolemine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a cytosolic monomeric hemoprotein enzyme that catalyses tryptophan, the least available essential amino acid in the human body, to N-formylkynurenine, which in turn rapidly degrades to give kynurenine. IDO is expressed in different tissues, especially and prominently in some subsets of antigen presenting cells (APCs) of lymphoid organs and also in the placenta of human and other mammals. Expression of IDO by certain dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages has a regulatory effect on T cells probably by providing a tryptophan-deficient microenvironment and/or accumulation of toxic metabolites of tryptophan. This immunomodulatory function of IDO plays an essential role in different physiological and pathological states. IDO was shown to prevent rejection of the fetus during pregnancy, possibly by inhibiting alloreactive T cells. Moreover, IDO expression in APCs was suggested to control autoreactive immune responses. In this review we discuss the molecular and biological characteristics of IDO and its function in immune system as well as the potential application of this enzyme in improving the outcome of allogeneic transplantation as a local immunosuppressive factor.Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology 01/2008; 6(4):167-79. · 1.01 Impact Factor