ABCG2: determining its relevance in clinical drug resistance.

Medical Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Cancer and metastasis reviews (Impact Factor: 6.45). 04/2007; 26(1):39-57. DOI: 10.1007/s10555-007-9042-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multidrug resistance is a major obstacle to successful cancer treatment. One mechanism by which cells can become resistant to chemotherapy is the expression of ABC transporters that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport a wide variety of substrates across the cell membrane. There are three human ABC transporters primarily associated with the multidrug resistance phenomenon, namely Pgp, MRP1, and ABCG2. All three have broad and, to a certain extent, overlapping substrate specificities, transporting the major drugs currently used in cancer chemotherapy. ABCG2 is the most recently described of the three major multidrug-resistance pumps, and its substrates include mitoxantrone, topotecan, irinotecan, flavopiridol, and methotrexate. Despite several studies reporting ABCG2 expression in normal and malignant tissues, no trials have thus far addressed the role of ABCG2 in clinical drug resistance. This gives us an opportunity to critically review the disappointing results of past clinical trials targeting Pgp and to propose strategies for ABCG2. We need to know in which tumor types ABCG2 contributes to the resistance phenotype. We also need to develop standardized assays to detect ABCG2 expression in vivo and to carefully select the chemotherapeutic agents and clinical trial designs. This review focuses on our current knowledge about normal tissue distribution, tumor expression profiles, and substrates and inhibitors of ABCG2, together with lessons learned from clinical trials with Pgp inhibitors. Implications of SNPs in the ABCG2 gene affecting the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs, including many non-chemotherapy agents and ABCG2 expression in the SP population of stem cells are also discussed.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary brain tumors occur in around 250,000 people per year globally. Survival rates in primary brain tumors depend on the type of tumor, patient's age, the extent of surgical tumor removal, and other factors. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a practical tool currently used in surgical operation of aggressive brain tumors, such as glioblastoma and meningiomas, whereas clinical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to brain tumor therapy has just recently started. Both PDD and PDT are achieved by a photon-induced physicochemical reaction, which is induced by the excitation of porphyrins exposed to light. In fluorescence-guided gross-total resection, PDD can be achieved by the administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) as the precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Exogenously administered ALA induces biosynthesis and accumulation of PpIX, a natural photosensitizer, in cancer cells. However, ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 plays a critical role in regulating the cellular accumulation of porphyrins in cancer cells and thereby its expression and function can affect the efficacy of PDD and PDT. In response to the photoreaction of porphyrins leading to oxidative stress, the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related transcription factor can transcriptionally upregulate ABCG2, which may reduce the efficacy of PDD and PDT. On the other hand, certain protein kinase inhibitors potentially enhance the efficacy of PDD and PDT by blocking ABCG2-mediated porphyrin efflux from cancer cells. In this context, it is of great interest to develop ABCG2 inhibitors that can be applied to PDD or PDT for the therapy of brain tumor and other tumors. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP/ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)] is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. The presence of ABCG2 on the plasma membrane in many kinds of human cancer cells contributes to multidrug resistance during chemotherapy, and it has been used as the side population marker for identifying cancer stem cells in lung cancers. We report here that, in addition to the membranous form, ABCG2 proteins are also found inside the nucleus, where they bind to the E-box of CDH1 (E-cadherin) promoter and regulate transcription of this gene. Increased expression of ABCG2 causes an increase of E-cadherin and attenuates cell migration, whereas knockdown of ABCG2 downregulates E-cadherin and enhances cell motility. In mice, xenografted A549 cells that have less ABCG2 are more likely to metastasize from the subcutaneous inoculation site to the internal organs. However, for the cancer cells that have already entered the blood circulation, an increased level of ABCG2, and correspondingly increased E-cadherin, may facilitate circulating cancer cells to colonize at a distant site and form a metastatic tumor. We propose a novel role for nuclear ABCG2 that functions as a transcription regulator and participates in modulation of cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 03/2015; 55(3). DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2015.01.004 · 5.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent one of the largest and oldest families of membrane proteins in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans, which couple the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis essentially to translocate, among various substrates, toxic compounds across the membrane. The fundamental functions of these multiple transporter proteins include: 1) conserved mechanisms related to nutrition and pathogenesis in bacteria; 2) spore formation in fungi, and 3) signal transduction, protein secretion and antigen presentation in eukaryotes. Moreover, one of the major causes of multidrug resistance (MDR) and chemotherapeutic failure in cancer therapy is believed to be the ABC transporter-mediated active efflux of a multitude of structurally and mechanistically distinct cytotoxic compounds across membranes. It has been postulated that ABC transporter inhibitors known as chemosensitizers may be used in combination with standard chemotherapeutic agents to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. The current paper reviews the advance in the past decade in this important domain of cancer chemoresistance and summarizes the development of new compounds and the re-evaluation of compounds originally designed for other targets as transport inhibitors of ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps.
    Drug Resistance Updates 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.drup.2014.11.002 · 8.82 Impact Factor