Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine disrupts ovarian function and fertility in adult female rats
ABSTRACT Women born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy have been shown to have impaired fertility, although the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. Nicotine administration in adult animals has adverse effects on the ovary and uterus; however, the effects of fetal exposure to nicotine on postnatal ovarian function have not been determined. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on ovarian function and fertility of the offspring. Nulliparous female Wistar rats were given 1 mg.kg-1.d-1 nicotine bitartrate, subcutaneously for 14 d prior to mating, during pregnancy and throughout lactation until weaning. Measures of fertility, breeding success, and serum levels of ovarian steroid hormones in offspring were assessed at 4 and 6 mo of age. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine significantly increased the time to pregnancy as the animals aged. Similarly, evidence of altered ovarian steroidogenesis including increased serum progesterone concentrations and a decreased estrogen:progesterone ratio was observed in 6-mo-old animals. We conclude that fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine results in delayed ovarian dysfunction in adult female offspring.
- SourceAvailable from: Muhammad Irfan-ur-Rehman Khan
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- "(B) The percentage of degenerated seminiferous tubules in 7 week old rats in the saline control group vs. rats with in utero and lactational exposure to nicotine. Each bar represents the mean ± SD. comes including reduced fertility in female offspring ; however, the effects on male reproductive tract development have not been reported previously. Results from the present study demonstrate that fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine has adverse, albeit transient, effects on male reproductive tract development. "
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to nicotine on the male reproductive tract. Dams were randomly assigned to receive saline or nicotine bitartrate (1mg/kg-d s.c.) daily for two weeks prior to mating until weaning (postnatal day 21). Male offspring were sacrificed at 7 (peri-pubertal) and 26 (adult) weeks of age. Nicotine-exposure resulted in retention of spermatids after stage VIII, tubular vacuolation, degeneration of pachytene and round spermatids at stage VII in the testes; and lymphocyte infiltration, germ cell exfoliation, and hypospermia in epididymides, at 7 weeks of age. Nicotine-exposure had no effect on testis or epididymal morphology, daily sperm production, epididymal sperm reserve, sperm viability at 26 weeks of age, and circulating testosterone levels at either age examined. We conclude that maternal nicotine-exposure during pregnancy and lactation can induce transient structural changes in the testis and epididymis of male offspring.Reproductive Toxicology 12/2010; 31(4):418-23. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.12.004 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The TSO calibration of the Automatic Network Analyzer uses shorts, thru and delay lines. This calibration is then used to extract or de-embed the parameters of a measured circuit.
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ABSTRACT: A wide variety of in utero insults are associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders in the offspring and in subsequent generations. We have shown that fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine results in endocrine and metabolic changes in the offspring that are consistent with those observed in type 2 diabetes. This study examines whether fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine has transgenerational effects in the F2 offspring. Female Wistar rats were given either saline or nicotine (1 mg/kg/d) during pregnancy and lactation to create saline- and nicotine-exposed female F1 progeny. These F1 females were then bred to produce F2 offspring. We examined glucose homeostasis, serum lipids and fat pad weights, mitochondrial enzyme activity in skeletal muscle and blood pressure in these F2 offspring between 13 and 15 weeks of age. Offspring of nicotine- versus saline-exposed mothers had elevated fasting serum insulin concentrations and an enhanced total insulin response to the glucose challenge. This apparent insulin resistance was unrelated to changes in skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume or activity. The offspring of nicotine-exposed mothers also had elevated blood pressure. These data demonstrate that adverse effects of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine can influence aspects of metabolic risk in subsequent generations.Endocrine 07/2007; 31(3):254-9. DOI:10.1007/s12020-007-0043-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor