Self-Transcendence and Well-Being in Homeless Adults

University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee College of Nursing, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
Journal of Holistic Nursing 04/2007; 25(1):5-13; discussion 14-5. DOI: 10.1177/0898010106289856
Source: PubMed


This study examines the relationships of spiritually and physically related variables to well-being among homeless adults. A convenience sample of 61 sheltered homeless persons completed the Spiritual Perspective Scale, the Self-Transcendence Scale, the Index of Well-Being, and items measuring fatigue and health status. The data were subjected to correlational and multiple regression analysis. Positive, significant correlations were found among spiritual perspective, self-transcendence, health status, and well-being. Fatigue was inversely correlated with health status and well-being. Self-transcendence and health status together explained 59% of the variance in well-being. The findings support Reed's theory of self-transcendence, in which there is the basic assumption that human beings have the potential to integrate difficult life situations. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence that conceptualizes homeless persons as having spiritual, emotional, and physical capacities that can be used by health care professionals to promote well-being in this vulnerable population.

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    • "Table 1 Sample characteristics Total sample Females Males Demographic variables n = 202 146 (72Á3%) 56 (27Á7%) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Age 85Á87 (7Á65) 87Á34 (6Á76) 82Á02 (8Á51) Residential time 2Á53 (2Á25) 2Á47 (2Á20) 2Á69 (2Á37) Frequency Frequency Frequency Marital state Married 36 11 25 Widowers 135 111 24 Divorced 11 7 4 Single 18 16 2 Partner 2 1 1 Nursing-home classification Rural nursing home 117 85 32 Central nursing home 85 61 24 Age and residential time are given in years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd former studies, Cronbach's a ranged from 0Á80–0Á88 (Reed 1991, 2009, Runquist & Reed 2007 "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of physical and emotional symptoms and the associations between symptoms and meaning-in-life in a cognitively intact nursing-home population. Meaning has been found to be a strong individual predictor of successful ageing and life satisfaction as well as an important psychological variable that promotes well-being. Meaning serves as a mediating variable in both psychological and physical health. The study employed a cross-sectional design. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 using the QLQ-C15-PAL quality-of-life questionnaire, the purpose-in-life test and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A total of 250 cognitively intact nursing-home patients who met the inclusion criteria were approached and 202 attended. The prevalence of symptoms was fairly high, with fatigue (57%), pain (49%), constipation (43%) and dyspnoea (41%) as the most frequent physical symptoms, while 30% were depressed and 12% had anxiety. Significant correlations between meaning-in-life and symptom severity were displayed. The level of symptom severity among cognitively intact nursing-home patients is high, requiring highly competent staff nurses. Meaning-in-life might be an important resource in relation to a patient's physical and emotional health and global well-being. Facilitating patients' meaning-in-life might help reducing symptom severity and fostering quality of life in cognitively intact nursing-home patients. However, advancing staff nurses' competence in palliative care, symptom management and nurse-patient interaction is important for care quality and quality if life in nursing homes.
    Journal of Clinical Nursing 12/2013; 23(7-8). DOI:10.1111/jocn.12282 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Each item is rated on a 4-point Likert-type scale from 1 (not at all) to 4 (very much); higher scores indicate higher self-transcendence. In former studies, Cronbach's a of the scale range was from .80 to .88 (Reed, 1991, 2009; Runquist & Reed, 2007), and was .72 in this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The experience of meaning has been found to be a strong individual predictor of life satisfaction and an important psychological variable that promotes well-being. Therefore, a valid and reliable measurement of meaning-in-life among nursing home patients is highly warranted. This study intended to further investigate (a) the factor structure of the Purpose-in-Life test (PIL), (b) the reliability of PIL scores, and (c) the construct validity of the PIL test in a nursing home population. Participants were 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients representing 44 different Norwegian nursing homes. Concerning the dimensionality of the PIL, the following 3 measurement models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis; the original 1-factor, a 2-factor, and a 3-factor model. With the exclusion of 10 items, a previously published and supported 2-factor construct for the PIL by Morgan and Farsides (2007) provided a good fit for older nursing home patients, demonstrating good measurement reliability and construct validity. The 2-factor model by Morgan and Farsides, comprising 10 items, is an improvement over the original 20-items PIL, based on these nursing home data. The measure yielded highly significantly factor loadings, good values for average variance extracted and composite reliability, as well as significant correlations in the expected direction for relevant selected measures; all supporting the construct validity.
    Journal of Nursing Measurement 08/2013; 21(2):296-319. DOI:10.1891/1061-3749.21.2.1
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    • "In former studies, Cronbach's a range was between .80 and .88 (Reed, 1991, 2009; Runquist & Reed, 2007). Support for construct validity has been found in the relationships of ST scores with other measures (Coward, 1990, 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: Self-transcendence is considered a developmental process of personal maturity and a vital resource of well-being in later adulthood. Measurement of the associations between self-transcendence and spiritual well-being in cognitively intact nursing home patients has not been previously published. The aim of this study was to identify the relationships between self-transcendence and spiritual well-being in cognitively intact nursing home patients. A cross-sectional design using the self-transcendence scale and the FACIT-Sp spiritual well-being questionnaire was adopted. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients in mid-Norway was selected to respond to the questionnaires in 2008 and 2009. Statistical analyses were conducted using lisrel 8.8 (Scientific Software International, Chicago, IL, USA) and structural equation modelling. A hypothesised structural equation model comprising a two-factor construct of self-transcendence and a three-factor construct of spiritual well-being demonstrated significant direct relationships between self-transcendence and spiritual well-being and total effects of self-transcendence on spiritual well-being. Facilitating patients' self-transcendence, both interpersonally and intrapersonally, might increase spiritual well-being among cognitively intact nursing home patients, which is seen to be of great importance to nursing home patients' overall satisfaction and satisfaction with staff. The two-factor construct of self-transcendence and the three-factor construct of FACIT-Sp allow a more complex examination of the associations between the constructs and prove more specific guidelines for nursing interventions promoting well-being in nursing home patients.
    International Journal of Older People Nursing 02/2013; 9(1). DOI:10.1111/opn.12018
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