Regulation of death-associated protein kinase - Stabilization by HSP90 heterocomplexes

Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 05/2007; 282(16):11795-804. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M610430200
Source: PubMed


Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) has been found associated with HSP90, and inhibition of HSP90 with 17-alkylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin reduced expression of DAPK. These results were extended to determine whether the degradation of DAPK in the absence of HSP90 activity is dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our results show that treatment of cells with geldanamycin (GA) leads to degradation of DAPK, and this degradation is attenuated by the proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin. GA-induced DAPK degradation is also dependent on phosphorylation of DAPK at Ser(308), and the cellular levels of phospho(Ser(308))-DAPK dramatically increase in response to GA treatment. Expression of two distinct ubiquitin E3 ligases, carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP) or DIP1/Mib1, enhanced DAPK degradation, and conversely, short interfering RNA depletion of either CHIP or DIP1/Mib1 attenuated DAPK degradation. In vitro ubiquitination assays confirmed that DAPK is targeted for ubiquitination by both CHIP and DIP. Consistent with these results, DAPK is found in two distinct immune complexes, one containing HSP90 and CHIP and a second complex containing only DIP1/Mib. Collectively, these results indicate that strict modulation of DAPK activities is critical for regulation of apoptosis and cellular homeostasis.

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    • "Consistent with this notion, it has been shown that DAPK protein expression is uncoupled from its mRNA expression under certain stress conditions (Lin et al, 2007). Importantly, although inhibition of both Mib1-and CHIP-mediated DAPK ubiquitination is implicated in DAPK stabilization induced by HSP90 (Zhang et al, 2007), suppression of KLHL20-mediated DAPK degradation is responsible for DAPK induction by IFN. Thus, different extracellular and intracellular signals could act on distinct E3 ligases to regulate DAPK protein level. "
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    ABSTRACT: Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) was identified as a mediator of interferon (IFN)-induced cell death. How IFN controls DAPK activation remains largely unknown. Here, we identify the BTB-Kelch protein KLHL20 as a negative regulator of DAPK. KLHL20 binds DAPK and Cullin 3 (Cul3) via its Kelch-repeat domain and BTB domain, respectively. The KLHL20-Cul3-ROC1 E3 ligase complex promotes DAPK polyubiquitination, thereby inducing the proteasomal degradation of DAPK. Accordingly, depletion of KLHL20 diminishes DAPK ubiquitination and degradation. The KLHL20-mediated DAPK ubiquitination is suppressed in cells receiving IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma, which induces an enrichment/sequestration of KLHL20 in the PML nuclear bodies, thereby separating KLHL20 from DAPK. Consequently, IFN triggers the stabilization of DAPK. This mechanism of DAPK stabilization is crucial for determining IFN responsiveness of tumor cells and contributes to IFN-induced autophagy. This study identifies KLHL20-Cul3-ROC1 as an E3 ligase for DAPK ubiquitination and reveals a regulatory mechanism of DAPK, through blocking its accessibility to this E3 ligase, in IFN-induced apoptotic and autophagic death. Our findings may be relevant to the problem of IFN resistance in cancer therapy.
    The EMBO Journal 04/2010; 29(10):1748-61. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2010.62 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    • " Heat shock protein 90 ( HSP90 ) is one of the most abundant cellular proteins under non - stressful conditions , and contributes to several biological processes such as signal transduction , protein folding , and protein degradation . HSP90 might confer a survival advantage to tumor cells through association with several regulators of apoptosis ( Zhang et al . , 2007 ) . HSP90 plays antiapoptotic roles through regulating the Akt - mediated survival cascade ( Pespeni et al . , 2007 ) . Lewis et al . ( 2000 ) demonstrated that over - expression of HSP90 protein in NIH3T3 cells suppresses tumor necrosis factor α ( TNFα ) - induced apoptosis ."
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of six arsenic compounds including As(+3), MMA(+3), DMA(+3), As(+5), MMA(+5), and DMA(+5) on the viability of NIH3T3 cells were examined. As(+3) and MMA(+3), but not the others, exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in NIH3T3 cells through apoptosis induction. The apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and chromosome condensation induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) were prevented by the addition of NAC and CAT, and induction of HO-1 gene expression in accordance with cleavage of the HSP90 protein, and suppression of telomerase activity were observed in NIH3T3 cells under As(+3) and MMA(+3) treatments. An increase in the intracellular peroxide level was examined in As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-treated NIH3T3 cells, and As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptotic events were blocked by NAC, CAT, and DPI addition. HSP90 inhibitors, GA and RD, significantly attenuated the telomerase activity in NIH3T3 cells with an enhancement of As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced cytotoxicity. Suppression of JNKs significantly inhibited As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis by blocking HSP90 protein cleavage and telomerase reduction in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, Hb, SnPP, and dexferosamine showed no effect against As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of HO-1 protein or inhibition of HO-1 protein expression did not affect the apoptosis induced by As(+3) or MMA(+3). These data provide the first evidence to indicate that apoptosis induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) is mediated by an ROS-dependent degradation of HSP90 protein and reduction of telomerase via JNK activation, and HO-1 induction might not be involved.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2008; 229(2):239-51. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2008.01.018 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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