AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 deficiency affects cardiac cardiolipin homeostasis and mitochondrial function.
ABSTRACT AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in controlling energy homeostasis and is envisioned as a promising target to treat metabolic disorders. In the heart, AMPK is involved in short-term regulation and in transcriptional control of proteins involved in energy metabolism. Here, we investigated whether deletion of AMPKalpha2, the main cardiac catalytic isoform, alters mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Body weight, heart weight, and AMPKalpha1 expression were similar in control littermate and AMPKalpha2(-/-) mice. Despite normal oxygen consumption in perfused hearts, maximal oxidative capacity, measured using saponin permeabilized cardiac fibers, was approximately 30% lower in AMPKalpha2(-/-) mice with octanoate, pyruvate, or glutamate plus malate but not with succinate as substrates, showing an impairment at complex I of the respiratory chain. This effect was associated with a 25% decrease in mitochondrial cardiolipin content, the main mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is crucial for complex I activity, and with a 13% decrease in mitochondrial content of linoleic acid, the main fatty acid of cardiolipins. The decrease in cardiolipin content could be explained by mRNA downregulation of rate-limiting enzymes of both cardiolipin synthesis (CTP:PA cytidylyltransferase) and remodeling (acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase 1). These data reveal a new role for AMPKalpha2 subunit in the regulation of cardiac muscle oxidative capacity via cardiolipin homeostasis.
Article: Permeabilized cell and skinned fiber techniques in studies of mitochondrial function in vivo.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this chapter we describe in details the permeabilized cell and skinned fiber techniques and their applications for studies of mitochondrial function in vivo. The experience of more than 10 years of research in four countries is summarized. The use of saponin in very low concentration (50-100 microg/ml) for permeabilisation of the sarcolemma leaves all intracellular structures, including mitochondria, completely intact. The intactness of mitochondrial function in these skinned muscle fibers is demonstrated in this work by multiple methods, such as NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence studies, fluorescence imaging, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and respiratory analysis. Permeabilized cell and skinned fiber techniques have several very significant advantages for studies of mitochondrial function, in comparison with the traditional methods of use of isolated mitochondria: (1) very small tissue samples are required; (2) all cellular population of mitochondria can be investigated; (3) most important, however, is that mitochondria are studied in their natural surrounding. The results of research by using this method show the existence of several new phenomenon--tissue dependence of the mechanism of regulation of mitochondrial respiration, and activation of respiration by selective proteolysis. These phenomena are explained by interaction of mitochondria with other cellular structures in vivo. The details of experimental studies with use of these techniques and problems of kinetic analysis of the results are discussed. Examples of large-scale clinical application of these methods are given.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 08/1998; 184(1-2):81-100. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a multisystem disorder of individuals who carry mutations in tafazzin, a putative phospholipid acyltransferase. We investigated the hypothesis that BTHS is caused by specific impairment of the mitochondrial lipid metabolism. The fatty acid composition of all major mitochondrial phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and cardiolipin (CL), changed in lymphoblasts from BTHS patients. These changes were most extensive in CL and least extensive in PE. The complementary nature of the fatty acid alterations in CL and PC suggested that fatty acid transfer between these two lipids was inhibited in BTHS. Fluorescence staining and electron microscopy showed abnormal proliferation of mitochondria in BTHS lymphoblasts. The mitochondrial membrane potential, monitored with the fluorescence probe JC-1, was reduced in BTHS lymphoblasts. However, mitochondrial ATP formation of permeabilized lymphoblasts remained unaffected in BTHS. The data suggest that phospholipid abnormalities of BTHS mitochondria led to partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and that lymphoblasts compensated for this deficiency by expanding the mitochondrial compartment.Laboratory Investigation 07/2005; 85(6):823-30. · 3.64 Impact Factor