To examine the effect of dairy calcium consumption on weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes indicators among overweight diabetic patients.
This was an ancillary study of a 6-month randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of three isocaloric diets in type 2 diabetic patients: 1) mixed glycemic index carbohydrate diet, 2) low-glycemic index diet, and 3) modified Mediterranean diet. Low-fat dairy product consumption varied within and across the groups by personal choice. Dietary intake, weight, CVD risk factors, and diabetes indexes were measured at baseline and at 6 months.
A total of 259 diabetic patients were recruited with an average BMI >31 kg/m2 and mean age of 55 years. No difference was found at baseline between the intervention groups in CVD risk factors, diabetes indicators, macronutrient intake, and nutrient intake from dairy products. Dairy calcium intake was associated with percentage of weight loss. Among the high tertile of dairy calcium intake, the odds ratio for weight loss of >8% was 2.4, P = 0.04, compared with the first tertile, after controlling for nondairy calcium intake, diet type, and the change in energy intake from baseline. No association was noted between dairy calcium and other health indexes except for triglyceride levels.
A diet rich in dairy calcium intake enhances weight reduction in type 2 diabetic patients. Such a diet could be tried in diabetic patients, especially those with difficulty adhering to other weight reduction diets.
"Initial studies by Zemel et al. (2000)  reported that those patients in the highest quartile of adiposity were negatively associated with calcium and dairy product intake. Another nutritional intervention trial also demonstrated that higher low-fat dairy intake among overweight type 2 diabetic patients on isocaloric-restricted regimens enhances the weight loss process . Furthermore observational studies have presented inverse associations between dairy intake and the prevalence of insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) manifestations is rapidly increasing worldwide, and is becoming an important health problem. Actually, MetS includes a combination of clinical complications such as obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. All these alterations predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease inducing earlier mortality rates among people. In general terms, it is difficult for patients to follow a standard long-term diet/exercise regime that would improve or alleviate MetS symptoms. Thus, the investigation of food components that may deal with the MetS features is an important field for ameliorate and facilitate MetS dietary-based therapies. Currently antioxidants are of great interest due to the described association between obesity, cardiovascular alterations and oxidative stress. On the other hand, high MUFA and PUFA diets are being also considered due to their potential benefits on hypertension, insulin resistance and triglyceride levels. Mineral composition of the diet is also relevant since high potassium intake may improve hypertension and high calcium consumption may promote lipid oxidation. Thus, although nutritional supplements are at the peak of dietetic therapies, the consumption of some specific foods (legumes, fatty fish, vegetables and fruits, etc) with bioactive components within an energy-restricted diet is a promising approach to manage MetS manifestations. Therefore, the present review focuses on some of the most important food components currently investigated to improve and make easier the nutritional MetS treatment.
"Among the high tertile of dairy calcium intake, the odds ratio for weight loss of >8% was 2.4, p Z 0.04, compared with the first tertile, after controlling for non-dairy calcium intake, diet type, and the change in energy intake from baseline. They concluded that a diet rich in dairy calcium intake enhances weight reduction in type 2 diabetic patients . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism and perhaps other components of dairy products may contribute to shifting the energy balance and thus play a role in weight regulation. We compared the effects of cows' milk, calcium fortified soy milk and calcium supplement on weight and body fat reduction in premenopausal overweight and obese women.
In this clinical trial, 100 healthy overweight or obese premenopausal women were randomized to one of the following dietary regimens for 8 weeks: (1) a control diet providing a 500kcal/day deficit, with 500-600mg/day dietary calcium; (2) a calcium-supplemented diet identical to the control diet with 800mg/day of calcium as calcium carbonate; (3) a milk diet providing a 500kcal/day deficit and containing three servings of low-fat milk; (4) a soy milk diet providing a 500kcal/day deficit and containing three servings of calcium fortified soy milk. At baseline and after 8 weeks, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured. Three 24-h dietary records and physical activity records were also taken. Comparing the mean differences in weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) using repeated measure of variance analysis showed that changes in waist circumference and WHR were significant among the four groups (p=0.029 and p=0.015, respectively). After adjustment for baseline values, changes in weight and BMI were also significant (p=0.017 and p=0.019, respectively). Weight reductions in high milk, soy milk, calcium supplement and control groups were 4.43±1.93(kg), 3.46±1.28(kg), 3.89±2.40(kg) and 2.87±1.55(kg), respectively. The greatest changes were seen in the high dairy group in all variables.
Increasing low fat milk consumption significantly reduces the general and central obesity beyond a low calorie diet.
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