Guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis cancer).

Department of Gastroenterology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Journal of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 5.64). 07/2007; 44(6):353-62. DOI: 10.1136/jmg.2007.048991
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is characterised by the development of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and various other cancers, and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The discovery of these genes, 15 years ago, has led to the identification of large numbers of affected families. In April 2006, a workshop was organised by a group of European experts in hereditary gastrointestinal cancer (the Mallorca-group), aiming to establish guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome. 21 experts from nine European countries participated in this workshop. Prior to the meeting, various participants prepared the key management issues of debate according to the latest publications. A systematic literature search using Pubmed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews reference lists of retrieved articles and manual searches of relevant articles was performed. During the workshop, all recommendations were discussed in detail. Because most of the studies that form the basis for the recommendations were descriptive and/or retrospective in nature, many of them were based on expert opinion. The guidelines described in this manuscript may be helpful for the appropriate management of families with Lynch syndrome. Prospective controlled studies should be undertaken to improve further the care of these families.


Available from: Gabriel Capellá, Apr 16, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A subset of individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) has a variant called Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) where patients develop multiple sebaceous neoplasms. Absence of gene expression and microsatellite instability (MSI) have been welldocumented in LS neoplasms. It is unclear whether the presence of these abnormalities in isolated sebaceous neoplasms would indicate the likely presence of otherwise unsuspected LS or MTS. 164 specimens of sporadic cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms were obtained. IHC was performed for expression of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MSH2 and MLH1. A 5-marker mononucleotide repeat microsatellite panel was analyzed to detect MSI, and two or more mutated markers were required for MSI. 164 sebaceous neoplasms were obtained from 162 patients. IHC data was successfully obtained from 162 samples and MSI data was obtained from 138 samples. 50/162 (31 %) had abnormal IHC with loss of staining for either MSH2 (37/162, 23 %), MLH1 (9/162, 5 %) or both (4/162, 2 %). 37 % (52/138) of the tumors had MSI. 82 % (111/136) of those with both IHC and MSI results correlated as expected. 18 % (25/136) showed discordance between IHC and MSI. 69/163 (42 %) had either abnormal IHC or MSI, indicating deficient DNA MMR activity. Given the substantial proportion of DNA MMR deficiency in these sebaceous neoplasms, screening for DNA MMR defects in sebaceous neoplasms would not appear to be an effective way to distinguish patients with LS or MTS from those with sporadic skin lesions and an ordinary risk of cancer.
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    ABSTRACT: Deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) results in a strong mutator phenotype known as microsatellite instability (MSI), which is a hallmark of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. MSI is characterized by length alterations within simple repeated sequences that are called microsatellites. Lynch syndrome is primarily caused by mutations in the MMR genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2, and less frequently in MSH6, and rarely PMS2, and large genomic rearrangements account for 5-20 % of all mutations. Germ line hemiallelic methylations of MLH1 or MSH2 are termed as epimutations and have been identified as causative of Lynch syndrome. Moreover, germ line 3' deletions of EPCAM gene is involved in MSH2 methylation. MSI is also observed in about 15 % of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), gastric cancer (GC), and endometrial cancer (EC), and at lower frequencies in other cancers, often in association with hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene. Trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys36 (H3K36 me3) is an epigenetic histone mark that was required for DNA MMR in vivo. Thus, mutations in the H3K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 have been reported as a potential cause of MSI. Genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic differences have been identified between cancers with and without MSI. Recent comprehensive molecular characterizations of CRC, EC, and GC by The Cancer Genome Atlas indicate that MSI+ cancers are distinct biological entities. The BRAF V600E mutation is specifically associated with sporadic MSI+ CRCs with methylated MLH1, but is not associated with Lynch syndrome-related CRCs. Accumulating evidence indicates a role of interactions between MSI and microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of MSI-positive (MSI+) cancer. As another new mechanism underlying MSI, overexpression of miR-155 or miR-21 has been shown to downregulate the expression of the MMR genes. Gene targets of frameshift mutations caused by MSI are involved in various cellular functions, including DNA repair (MSH3 and MSH6), cell signaling (TGFBR2 and ACVR2A), apoptosis (BAX), epigenetic regulation (HDAC2 and ARID1A), and miRNA processing (TARBP2 and XPO5), and a subset of MSI+ CRCs reportedly shows the mutated miRNA machinery phenotype. Moreover, microsatellite repeats in miRNA genes, such as hsa-miR-1273c, may be novel MSI targets for CRC, and mutations in noncoding regulatory regions of MRE11, BAX (BaxΔ2), and HSP110 (HSP110ΔE9) may affect the efficiency of chemotherapy. Thus, analyses of MSI and its related molecular alterations in cancers are increasingly relevant in clinical settings, and MSI is a useful screening marker for identifying patients with Lynch syndrome and a prognostic factor for chemotherapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of MSI and focus on genome-wide analyses that indicate the potential use of MSI and related alterations as biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets.
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary colorectal cancer accounts for approximately 30 % of all colorectal cancers, but currently only 5 % of these families can be explained by highly penetrant, inherited mutations. In the remaining 25 % it is not possible to perform a gene test to identify the family members who would benefit from prophylactic screening. Consequently, all family members are asked to follow a screening program. The purpose of this study was to localize a new gene which causes colorectal cancer. We performed a linkage analysis using data from a SNP6.0 chip in one large family with 12 affected family members. We extended the linkage analysis with microsatellites (STS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) and looked for the loss of heterozygosity in tumour tissue. Furthermore, we performed the exome sequencing of one family member and we sequenced candidate genes by use of direct sequencing. Major rearrangements were excluded after karyotyping. The linkage analysis with SNP6 data revealed three candidate areas, on chromosome 2, 6 and 11 respectively, with a LOD score close to two and no negative LOD scores. After extended linkage analysis, the area on chromosome 6 was excluded, leaving areas on chromosome 2 and chromosome 11 with the highest possible LOD scores of 2.6. Two other studies have identified 11q24 as a candidate area for colorectal cancer susceptibility and this area is supported by our results.
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