Associations of parental personality disorders and axis I disorders with childrearing behavior.
ABSTRACT Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal investigation, were used to investigate the associations of parental anxiety, depressive, substance use, and personality disorders with parental child rearing behavior. Comprehensive psychosocial interviews, including assessments of child rearing, were conducted with 224 women and 153 men (mean age = 33 years; mean off- spring age = 8 years). Findings indicated that parental personality disorders were associated with parental possessiveness, inconsistent parental discipline, low parental communication, and low parental praise and encouragement. These associations remained significant when parental gender, offspring gender, and co-occurring parental disorders were controlled statistically. Parental anxiety disorders were independently associated with parental possessiveness. Parents with personality disorders were substantially more likely than parents without personality disorders to report engaging in multiple problematic child rearing behaviors. This association was not moderated by co-occurring parental disorders. These findings suggest that the presence of a parental personality disorder may be associated with an elevated likelihood of problematic parenting behavior during the child rearing years.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To systematically review the literature on the link between personality disorder and parenting capacity from an attachment theory perspective. Method Four electronic databases were searched systematically. Those studies that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were quality assessed. Data was then extracted and synthesized from the included studies using a qualitative approach. Results Fifteen thousand and sixty one hits were found. A further 22 studies were identified through expert contact, and two from references lists. Two thousand eight hundred and eighty five duplicates were removed and a further 11,926 irrelevant studies were excluded. Of the remaining 250 articles, 229 did not meet the inclusion criteria and were therefore removed and two articles were unobtainable. A further 19 studies were removed following quality assessment, leaving a total of 11 studies to be reviewed. The majority of the findings supported the association between a diagnosis of personality disorder, poor parent–child interactions and problematic parenting practices. Conclusions Parental personality disorder was identified as a risk factor for impaired parenting behaviors and disturbed parent–infant. More rigorous research is required in relation to how co-morbidity and personality disorder alone influence the broad dimensions of parenting capacity for both mothers and fathers.Aggression and Violent Behavior 11/2013; 18(6):644–655. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2013.07.017 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 10/2013; 43(5). DOI:10.1080/15374416.2013.836451 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children's mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1). Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children's symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents' symptoms on their preschoolers' behavioral and emotional problems. The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents' Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children's behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents' cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children's emotional problems explained by the parents' Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. For the first time, it is documented that parents' self-reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders at a predominantly subclinical level had a strong effect on their children's psychiatric symptoms, especially when the biological parents were not living together. Child service providers need to be aware of these specific symptoms of parental Personality Disorders, which may represent a possible risk to children.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 05/2012; 6(1):19. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-6-19