Associations of parental personality disorders and axis I disorders with childrearing behavior.
ABSTRACT Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal investigation, were used to investigate the associations of parental anxiety, depressive, substance use, and personality disorders with parental child rearing behavior. Comprehensive psychosocial interviews, including assessments of child rearing, were conducted with 224 women and 153 men (mean age = 33 years; mean off- spring age = 8 years). Findings indicated that parental personality disorders were associated with parental possessiveness, inconsistent parental discipline, low parental communication, and low parental praise and encouragement. These associations remained significant when parental gender, offspring gender, and co-occurring parental disorders were controlled statistically. Parental anxiety disorders were independently associated with parental possessiveness. Parents with personality disorders were substantially more likely than parents without personality disorders to report engaging in multiple problematic child rearing behaviors. This association was not moderated by co-occurring parental disorders. These findings suggest that the presence of a parental personality disorder may be associated with an elevated likelihood of problematic parenting behavior during the child rearing years.
SourceAvailable from: Shihning Chou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective To systematically review the literature on the link between personality disorder and parenting capacity from an attachment theory perspective. Method Four electronic databases were searched systematically. Those studies that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were quality assessed. Data was then extracted and synthesized from the included studies using a qualitative approach. Results Fifteen thousand and sixty one hits were found. A further 22 studies were identified through expert contact, and two from references lists. Two thousand eight hundred and eighty five duplicates were removed and a further 11,926 irrelevant studies were excluded. Of the remaining 250 articles, 229 did not meet the inclusion criteria and were therefore removed and two articles were unobtainable. A further 19 studies were removed following quality assessment, leaving a total of 11 studies to be reviewed. The majority of the findings supported the association between a diagnosis of personality disorder, poor parent–child interactions and problematic parenting practices. Conclusions Parental personality disorder was identified as a risk factor for impaired parenting behaviors and disturbed parent–infant. More rigorous research is required in relation to how co-morbidity and personality disorder alone influence the broad dimensions of parenting capacity for both mothers and fathers.Aggression and Violent Behavior 11/2013; 18(6):644–655. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2013.07.017 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18-25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent.Child abuse & neglect 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.10.003 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Maternal affect dysregulation and maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of maternal emotional availability (EA) during motherinfant interaction in a nonclinical sample. In particular, we investigated if affect dysregulation predicts EA and is more important than are depressive symptoms in predicting EA. Questionnaire measures and 30 min of free play were obtained from 46 mothers of 4- to 5-month-old infants. Mothers' self-reported affect dysregulation was inversely related to EA, but mothers' depressive symptoms were not related to EA. More specifically, mothers' tendency to use unhealthy externalizing behaviors to reduce tension and distress predicted less EA. These results suggested that even in relatively low-risk samples, mothers' self-reported affect dysregulation, particularly the tendency to act out inappropriately in response to tension and distress, may be a more proximal predictor of EA than are depressive symptoms.Infant Mental Health Journal 09/2012; 33(5). DOI:10.1002/imhj.21326 · 0.61 Impact Factor