Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal investigation, were used to investigate the associations of parental anxiety, depressive, substance use, and personality disorders with parental child rearing behavior. Comprehensive psychosocial interviews, including assessments of child rearing, were conducted with 224 women and 153 men (mean age = 33 years; mean off- spring age = 8 years). Findings indicated that parental personality disorders were associated with parental possessiveness, inconsistent parental discipline, low parental communication, and low parental praise and encouragement. These associations remained significant when parental gender, offspring gender, and co-occurring parental disorders were controlled statistically. Parental anxiety disorders were independently associated with parental possessiveness. Parents with personality disorders were substantially more likely than parents without personality disorders to report engaging in multiple problematic child rearing behaviors. This association was not moderated by co-occurring parental disorders. These findings suggest that the presence of a parental personality disorder may be associated with an elevated likelihood of problematic parenting behavior during the child rearing years.
"The disruptive effects of parent psychopathology symptoms on parental expression of emotions have been central to theoretical models of the effects of parent psychopathology on parenting (Dix and Meunier 2009), and have been well-documented in empirical studies. For example, parental depression (e.g., Zahn-Waxler et al. 2002), anxiety (e.g., Whaley et al. 1999; Johnson et al. 2006b), and personality disorders (Johnson et al. 2006b) have been linked to greater parental expression of negative affect and/or less expression of warmth/positive affect. In a previous study using the same dataset as the current study, parent psychopathology symptoms were found to be an important determinant of parental warmth and overreactivity/ negative affect among parents of children with behavior problem (Harvey et al. 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices.
"Such individuals will find it harder to learn about how subjective experiences inevitably vary between people . In some longitudinal investigations, low parental affection or nurturing in early childhood appears more strongly associated with elevated risk for borderline , antisocial, paranoid, and schizotypal PDs diagnosed in early adulthood than even physical or sexual abuse in adolescence (Johnson et al. 2006). A number of studies have pointed to the importance of neglect, low parental involvement, and emotional maltreatment rather than the presence of abuse as the critical predictor of severe PD (e.g., Johnson et al. 2001). "
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders, 2 edited by John Oldham, Andrew Skodol, Donna Bender, 05/2014: chapter Development, Attachment, and Childhood Experiences: pages 55-78; American Psychiatric Publishing., ISBN: 978-1-58562-456-0
"Of these studies, nine found evidence to support the existence of a positive association between a diagnosis of personality disorder and personality disordered features and impaired parenting behaviors (Crandell et al., 2003; Famularo et al., 1992; Hans et al., 1999; Hobson et al., 2005, 2009; Johnson, Cohen, Brown, Smailes, & Bernstein, 1999; Johnson et al., 2006; Newman et al., 2007;Wiehe, 2003) and these associations remained when controlling for other confounding variables. In these studies, the presence of personality disorder was related to: the use of inadvisable and problematic parental practices (Conroy et al., 2010; Johnson et al., 2006, 2008); inconsistent parental discipline, low parental affection, assistance, praise and encouragement (Johnson et al., 2006, 2008) less satisfaction and reported competence in the parenting role (Newman et al., 2007); insensitive, intrusive, poorly attuned and disrupted parent–infant interactions (Crandell et al.,2003; DeMulder et al., 1995; Hans et al., 1999; Hobson et al., 2005, 2009; Newman et al., 2007); harsh behavior (Hans et al., 1999); frightening/ disoriented parental behavior (Hobson et al., 2009); status as an abusive parent (Famularo et al., 1992;Wiehe, 2003). Cluster B disorders were found to exert a negative effect on parenting in eight of the studies and Clusters A and C were featured in three of the studies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To systematically review the literature on the link between personality disorder and parenting capacity from an attachment theory perspective.
Four electronic databases were searched systematically. Those studies that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were quality assessed. Data was then extracted and synthesized from the included studies using a qualitative approach.
Fifteen thousand and sixty one hits were found. A further 22 studies were identified through expert contact, and two from references lists. Two thousand eight hundred and eighty five duplicates were removed and a further 11,926 irrelevant studies were excluded. Of the remaining 250 articles, 229 did not meet the inclusion criteria and were therefore removed and two articles were unobtainable. A further 19 studies were removed following quality assessment, leaving a total of 11 studies to be reviewed. The majority of the findings supported the association between a diagnosis of personality disorder, poor parent–child interactions and problematic parenting practices.
Parental personality disorder was identified as a risk factor for impaired parenting behaviors and disturbed parent–infant. More rigorous research is required in relation to how co-morbidity and personality disorder alone influence the broad dimensions of parenting capacity for both mothers and fathers.
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