Rarity of PTEN deletions and EGFR amplification in malignant gliomas of childhood: results from the Children's Cancer Group 945 cohort.
ABSTRACT In reporting on molecular studies involving malignant gliomas in adults, authors have noted that deletions of PTEN and amplification of EGFR are common and may contribute to tumor development, providing a rationale for a number of therapies aimed at these molecular targets. The frequency of comparable abnormalities has not been defined in a sizable pediatric cohort. To address this issue, we examined tumor samples from the Children's Cancer Group 945 study, a large randomized trial of treatment for childhood malignant gliomas.
Tissue sections in 62 evaluable cases were examined, and the tumors were isolated by microdissection. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to detect PTEN mutations. Deletions of PTEN were also assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 27 cases and loss of heterozygosity analysis in 54; EGFR was assessed using immunohistochemistry to identify areas with maximal EGFR expression, followed by FISH to determine EGFR amplification. Alteration of the PTEN sequence was detected in just one of 62 tumors, in conjunction with loss of chromosome 10; PTEN deletions without mutation were evident in seven additional tumors. The PTEN alterations were more common in glioblastoma multiforme (seven of 25 tumors) than other tumor subgroups (one of 37 tumors) (p = 0.0056). Although 14 of 38 evaluable tumors had increased EGFR expression compared to normal tissue, only one tumor exhibited amplification of EGFR.
Alterations in PTEN and amplification of EGFR are uncommon in pediatric malignant gliomas, in contrast to adult malignant gliomas. From this one can infer that the pediatric and adult tumors involve distinct molecular causes. The results of this study have important implications for the adaptation of glioma therapies aimed at molecular targets in adults to the treatment of childhood gliomas, and highlight the need for investigations of therapies specifically directed toward childhood tumors.
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ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor gene has been found to be amplified and rearranged in human glioblastomas in vivo. Here we present the sequence across a splice junction of aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor transcripts derived from corresponding and uniquely rearranged genes that are coamplified and coexpressed with non-rearranged epidermal growth factor receptor genes in six primary human glioblastomas. Each of these six tumors contains aberrant transcripts derived from identical splicing of exon 1 to exon 8 as a consequence of a deletion-rearrangement of the amplified gene, the extent of which is variable among these tumors. In spite of this intertumoral variability, each intragenic rearrangement results in loss of the same 801 coding bases (exons 2-7) and creation of a new codon at the novel splice site in their corresponding transcripts. These rearrangements do not, however, affect the mRNA sequence for the signal peptide, the first five codons, or the reading frame downstream of the rearrangement.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1990; 87(21):8602-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
Article: Brain Tumors in Children.California and western medicine 02/1936; 44(1):25-9.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme is a clinically and histologically heterogeneous lesion; however, to date, it has not been possible to subdivide glioblastomas on a clinical, histopathological or biological basis. Previous studies have demonstrated that loss of portions of chromosomes 10 and 17 and amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are the most frequent genetic alterations in glioblastoma. We therefore examined 74 glioblastomas from 67 patients for loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 10 and 17, and for amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, to determine whether glioblastomas can be subtyped on a genetic basis. Using Southern blot analysis we were able to detect different patterns of genomic alterations. Eighteen of 67 informative patients were characterized by a loss of heterozygosity on the short arm of chromosome 17 in the tumor tissue. Forty-five of 64 informative patients showed a loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10. Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene was noted in 25 of 67 patients and was restricted to those glioblastomas that had lost portions of chromosome 10. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification occurred significantly more often in patients without chromosome 17p loss than in patients with chromosome 17p loss (p = 0.01). In addition, those glioblastomas with a loss of chromosome 17p occurred in patients significantly younger than those with glioblastomas characterized by EGFR gene amplification (p = 0.001). These data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of glioblastoma and suggest the division of glioblastoma into genetic subsets.Brain Pathology 02/1993; 3(1):19-26. · 4.74 Impact Factor