Lessons from each drug trial

American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.56). 04/2007; 164(3):375-6. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.164.3.375
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: This naturalistic study aims to compare discontinuation rates for low-dose first-generation versus second-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychotic patients. The prescription of antipsychotic medication in 301 consecutively admitted patients with first-episode psychosis from four catchment areas is described. For the first year of inclusion a first-generation antipsychotic in low dose was recommended as the first medication. From the second year a second-generation antipsychotic was recommended as first choice. Switching was allowed when any drug was judged to be ineffective or to have serious side-effects. Switching during the first 2 years after inclusion is described. Switching from a low-dose first-generation antipsychotic was more frequent than from a second-generation antipsychotic (90.7 vs. 58.4%). Lack of therapeutic effect and side-effects were the more frequently recorded reasons for changing in the first-generation group. Akathisia, parkinsonism, dyskinesias, dystonia and dysphoria were more often reported in patients on first-generation drugs. Weight gain and sedation were more often reported in patients on second-generation drugs. The findings suggest a better adherence to and tolerability for second-generation antipsychotics than for low-dose first-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis.
    Early Intervention in Psychiatry 02/2009; 3(1):58-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-7893.2008.00103.x · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease and drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) have commonalities in etiology based on impaired dopamine-based neurotransmission. Adenosine A(2A)-receptor antagonism may provide a new mechanism through which these disorders can be managed. In the motor circuit, tonic output from the globus pallidus and substantia nigra regulates movement via opposing excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the cerebral cortex through the direct and indirect pathways. Increased activity of the direct pathway increases movement via an inhibitory effect on thalamocortical projection neurons; increased activity of the indirect pathway has the opposite effect. Regulation of these pathways is mediated primarily by reciprocal inhibitory interactions between dopamine and adenosine receptors on neurons of these pathways. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are colocalized with dopamine D(2) receptors on the indirect pathway neurons, with A(2A) activation opposing the effect of D(2) activation. The A(2A) receptors' role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and DIMDs is evidenced by the upregulation of A(2A) receptors in patients with Parkinson's disease and patients receiving long-term administration of dopamine blockers. Further, A(2A)-receptor antagonists are effective in reversing parkinsonian motor deficits and extrapyramidal symptoms in animal models of Parkinson's disease and DIMDs. Understanding the role of A(2A)-receptor antagonism in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and DIMD has therapeutic implications.
    European Neurology 11/2011; 67(1):4-11. DOI:10.1159/000331768 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic medication-induced dysphoria is a relatively under-recognized and understudied effect of antipsychotic medication. Although the term is encountered in clinical practice and in the literature, there is no consensus regarding its exact meaning. This article is a narrative review of the literature on antipsychotic medication and dysphoria based on a pubmed database search. We found that antipsychotic medication-induced dysphoria is a term used to describe a negative and unpleasant affective state which seems to be more often associated with high potency first-generation antipsychotics and could potentially lead to medication non-adherence. Though it is plausible to expect antipsychotic medication-induced dysphoria to be related to extrapyramidal symptoms, most especially akathisia, the nature of the association remains unspecified. Furthermore, there is some evidence that dopamine blockade maybe involved in the pathogenesis of antipsychotic medication-induced dysphoria. However, the limited methods of the currently available studies make it impossible to conclusively address the question of which class of antipsychotic (first- or second-generation) has a higher prevalence and severity of the syndrome.
    Psychiatric Quarterly 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11126-014-9319-1 · 1.26 Impact Factor