Antipsychotic prescribing quality and ethnicity: a study of hospitalized patients in south east London.
ABSTRACT A number of studies have shown qualitative and quantitative differences in prescribing of antipsychotics according to patient ethnicity. Black patients tend, for example, to be prescribed higher doses of antipsychotics than whites. Few studies have controlled for other factors which may influence prescribing practice and confound results. This study sought to determine whether or not ethnicity was associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy, high dosage and antipsychotic costs before and after adjustment for potential confounding. We approached inpatients on acute general psychiatry wards at the Maudsley, Bethlem and Lambeth hospitals in south east London. Prescription details were noted. Subjects were interviewed and social and clinical details were recorded. In all, data on 23 potential confounders were collected.A total of 210 patients were approached of whom 153 agreed to take part. Of the 23 potential confounders, only use of English as a first language and duration of illness differed significantly between blacks and whites. Categorical findings were adjusted for these factors and other potential confounders such as age and gender. Total antipsychotic daily dose was 82.2% of licensed maximum in blacks, and 77.2% in whites (p=0.48). Antipsychotic polypharmacy was seen in 23.2% of blacks and 16.9% of whites (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.11; 95% CI, 0.45-2.75). High dose (> 100% of maximum dose) antipsychotic regimens were prescribed to 15.9% of blacks and 16.9% of whites (adjusted OR, 0.71: 95% CI, 0.27-1.90). Mean monthly cost of treatment was significantly higher in blacks than whites (182.79 vs 143.08 British pound; p=0.02; adjusted OR (> 150 British pound/month), 2.45: 95% CI, 1.19-5.08). Prescribing quality was similar for blacks and whites. Black ethnicity was associated with significantly higher mean monthly medication costs.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence and correlates of antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) across decades and regions. Electronic PubMed/Google Scholar search for studies reporting on APP, published from 1970 to 05/2009. Median rates and interquartile ranges (IQR) were calculated and compared using non-parametric tests. Demographic and clinical variables were tested as correlates of APP in bivariate and meta-regression analyses. Across 147 studies (1,418,163 participants, 82.9% diagnosed with schizophrenia [IQR=42-100%]), the median APP rate was 19.6% (IQR=12.9-35.0%). Most common combinations included first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs)+second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) (42.4%, IQR=0.0-71.4%) followed by FGAs+FGAs (19.6%, IQR=0.0-100%) and SGAs+SGAs (1.8%, IQR=0.0-28%). APP rates were not different between decades (1970-1979:28.8%, IQR=7.5-44%; 1980-1989:17.6%, IQR=10.8-38.2; 1990-1999:22.0%, IQR=11-40; 2000-2009:19.2% IQR=14.4-29.9, p=0.78), but between regions, being higher in Asia and Europe than North America, and in Asia than Oceania (p<0.001). APP increased numerically by 34% in North America from the 1980s 12.7%) to 2000s (17.0%) (p=0.94) and decreased significantly by 65% from 1980 (55.5%) to 2000 (19.2%) in Asia (p=0.03), with non-significant changes in Europe. APP was associated with inpatient status (p<0.001), use of FGAs (p<0.0001) and anticholinergics (<0.001), schizophrenia (p=0.01), less antidepressant use (p=0.02), greater LAIs use (p=0.04), shorter follow-up (p=0.001) and cross-sectional vs. longitudinal study design (p=0.03). In a meta-regression, inpatient status (p<0.0001), FGA use (0.046), and schizophrenia diagnosis (p=0.004) independently predicted APP (N=66, R(2)=0.44, p<0.0001). APP is common with different rates and time trends by region over the last four decades. APP is associated with greater anticholinergic requirement, shorter observation time, greater illness severity and lower antidepressant use.Schizophrenia Research 04/2012; 138(1):18-28. · 4.43 Impact Factor
Article: Race and prescribingPsychiatrist 04/2010; 34(5):169-171.
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ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is common in the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The literature indicates that APP is related to patient, illness, and treatment variables that are proxy measures for greater illness acuity, severity, complexity, and chronicity. The largely unknown relative risks and benefits of APP need to be weighed against the known risks and benefits of clozapine for treatment-resistant patients. To inform evidence-based clinical practice, controlled, high-quality antipsychotic combination and discontinuation trials are necessary to determine the effectiveness, safety, and role of APP in the management of severely ill patients with insufficient response to antipsychotic monotherapy.The Psychiatric clinics of North America 09/2012; 35(3):661-81. · 1.87 Impact Factor