A number of studies have shown qualitative and quantitative differences in prescribing of antipsychotics according to patient ethnicity. Black patients tend, for example, to be prescribed higher doses of antipsychotics than whites. Few studies have controlled for other factors which may influence prescribing practice and confound results. This study sought to determine whether or not ethnicity was associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy, high dosage and antipsychotic costs before and after adjustment for potential confounding. We approached inpatients on acute general psychiatry wards at the Maudsley, Bethlem and Lambeth hospitals in south east London. Prescription details were noted. Subjects were interviewed and social and clinical details were recorded. In all, data on 23 potential confounders were collected.A total of 210 patients were approached of whom 153 agreed to take part. Of the 23 potential confounders, only use of English as a first language and duration of illness differed significantly between blacks and whites. Categorical findings were adjusted for these factors and other potential confounders such as age and gender. Total antipsychotic daily dose was 82.2% of licensed maximum in blacks, and 77.2% in whites (p=0.48). Antipsychotic polypharmacy was seen in 23.2% of blacks and 16.9% of whites (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.11; 95% CI, 0.45-2.75). High dose (> 100% of maximum dose) antipsychotic regimens were prescribed to 15.9% of blacks and 16.9% of whites (adjusted OR, 0.71: 95% CI, 0.27-1.90). Mean monthly cost of treatment was significantly higher in blacks than whites (182.79 vs 143.08 British pound; p=0.02; adjusted OR (> 150 British pound/month), 2.45: 95% CI, 1.19-5.08). Prescribing quality was similar for blacks and whites. Black ethnicity was associated with significantly higher mean monthly medication costs.
"These findings have resulted in accusations of institutional racism in mental health services (Norfolk, 2003). Previously we have examined the effect of ethnicity on the prescribing of antipsychotics in the UK both in our trust (National Health Service (NHS) provider of secondary care mental health services) (Connolly et al., 2007) and more recently in our neighbouring mental health trusts (Connolly and Taylor, 2008). Neither study revealed major differences in the quality of antipsychotic prescribing but statistical power was somewhat limited, few inpatient units were studied and the geographical area under investigation was restricted to south London. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnicity may affect the prescribing of antipsychotic treatment. Previous UK studies conducted in south London have found few differences in antipsychotic prescribing quality for Black and White patients. This larger multicentre study examined the effect of ethnicity on antipsychotic prescribing quality in areas serving the largest proportions of Black patients in the UK. A cross-sectional survey with collection of multiple confounding factors potentially affecting outcomes in eight secondary care units in England over a three month period. Participants were Black or White inpatients prescribed regular antipsychotics on the day of the survey. Antipsychotic dose (expressed as a percentage of licensed maximum), high dose (being prescribed antipsychotic medication above maximum dose), polypharmacy (more than one antipsychotic prescribed), type (typical or atypical antipsychotic) and costs were the main outcome measures. Data were collected for 938 patients. There were no significant differences in any outcome by ethnicity: dose (adjusted percentage difference 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) -4.28, 6.22], p = 0.72); high dose (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.98 [CI 0.63, 1.51], p = 0.92); polypharmacy prescribed (AOR 1.15 [CI 0.87, 1.51], p = 0.33); polypharmacy administered (AOR 1.08 [CI 0.78, 1.49], p = 0.66); use of typical antipsychotics (AOR 1.25 [CI 0.87, 1.79], p = 0.22); and cost (adjusted effect size 1.75 [CI -9.81, 13.31], p = 0.77). Antipsychotic prescribing practice did not differ between Black and White patients.
Journal of Psychopharmacology 12/2011; 25:704-709. DOI:10.1177/0269881110387841 · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical guidelines recommend the routine use of a single antipsychotic drug in a standard dose, but prescriptions for high-dose and combined antipsychotics are common in clinical practice.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement programme in reducing the prevalence of high-dose and combined antipsychotic prescribing in acute adult in-patient wards in the UK.
Baseline audit was followed by feedback of benchmarked data and delivery of a range of bespoke change interventions, and then by a further audit 1 year later.
Thirty-two services participated, submitting data for 3,942 patients at baseline and 3,271 patients at the 1-year audit. There was little change in the prevalence of high-dose (baseline 36%; re-audit 34%) or combined antipsychotic prescribing (baseline 43%; re-audit 39%). As required ('p.r.n.') prescriptions were the principal cause of both high-dose and combined antipsychotic prescribing on both occasions.
The quality improvement programme did not have a demonstrable impact on prescribing practice in the majority of services. Future efforts to align practice with clinical guidelines need to specifically target the culture and practice of p.r.n. prescribing.
The British Journal of Psychiatry 07/2008; 192(6):435-9. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.042895 · 7.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnicity may influence treatment decisions in mental disorders. We undertook a survey of the prescribing of antipsychotics for in-patients in three south London mental health trusts. A total of 255 patients (152 White, 103 Black) were included. Median dose of antipsychotic (% of licensed dose) was 58.3% for White and 50.0% for Black patients (adjusted effect size=0.14, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.63). High-dose antipsychotics were prescribed to 15.1% of White and 11.7% of Black patients (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.5, 95% CI 0.19-1.33), and antipsychotic polypharmacy was recorded for 25.7% and 31.1% respectively (adjusted OR=3.05, 95% CI 1.44-6.46). Prescribing quality was similar for Black and White patients.
The British Journal of Psychiatry 09/2008; 193(2):161-2. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.050427 · 7.99 Impact Factor
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