Adrenomedullin insufficiency increases allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice

Shinshu University, Shonai, Nagano, Japan
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.06). 07/2007; 102(6):2361-8. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00615.2006
Source: PubMed


Adrenomedullin (ADM), a newly identified vasodilating peptide, is reported to be expressed in lungs and have a bronchodilating effect. We hypothesized whether ADM could be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. We examined the role of ADM in airway responsiveness using heterozygous ADM-deficient mice (AM+/-) and their littermate control (AM+/+). Here, we show that airway responsiveness is enhanced in ADM mutant mice after sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). The immunoreactive ADM level in the lung tissue after methacholine challenge was significantly greater in the wild-type mice than that in the mutant. However, the impairment of ADM gene function did not affect immunoglobulins (OVA-specific IgE and IgG1), T helper 1 and 2 cytokines, and leukotrenes. Thus the conventional mechanism of allergen-induced airway responsiveness is not relevant to this model. Furthermore, morphometric analysis revealed that eosinophilia and airway hypersecretion were similarly found in both the OVA-treated ADM mutant mice and the OVA-treated wild-type mice. On the other hand, the area of the airway smooth muscle layer of the OVA-treated mutant mice was significantly greater than that of the OVA-treated wild-type mice. These results suggest that ADM gene disruption may be associated with airway smooth muscle hyperplasia as well as enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness. ADM mutant mice might provide novel insights to study the pathophysiological role of ADM in vivo.

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Available from: Takayuki Shindo, Mar 11, 2014
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    • "Therefore, it is possible that some of the reduced airway resistance observed in the CLR heterozygotes is due to a reduction in AM signaling. Several years ago, Yamamoto et al published a study investigating the effect of AM heterozygosity on allergic asthma [31]. This study revealed that a 50% reduction in AM signaling resulted in an exacerbation of airway resistance [31], indicating that AM signaling may be a protective peptide against asthma. "
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the lung, characterized by breathing difficulty during an attack following exposure to an environmental trigger. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that may have a pathological role in asthma. The CGRP receptor is comprised of two components, which include the G-protein coupled receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). RAMPs, including RAMP1, mediate ligand specificity in addition to aiding in the localization of receptors to the cell surface. Since there has been some controversy regarding the effect of CGRP on asthma, we sought to determine the effect of CGRP signaling ablation in an animal model of asthma. Using gene-targeting techniques, we generated mice deficient for RAMP1 by excising exon 3. After determining that these mice are viable and overtly normal, we sensitized the animals to ovalbumin prior to assessing airway resistance and inflammation after methacholine challenge. We found that mice lacking RAMP1 had reduced airway resistance and inflammation compared to wildtype animals. Additionally, we found that a 50% reduction of CLR, the G-protein receptor component of the CGRP receptor, also ameliorated airway resistance and inflammation in this model of allergic asthma. Interestingly, the loss of CLR from the smooth muscle cells did not alter the airway resistance, indicating that CGRP does not act directly on the smooth muscle cells to drive airway hyperresponsiveness. Together, these data indicate that signaling through RAMP1 and CLR plays a role in mediating asthma pathology. Since RAMP1 and CLR interact to form a receptor for CGRP, our data indicate that aberrant CGRP signaling, perhaps on lung endothelial and inflammatory cells, contributes to asthma pathophysiology. Finally, since RAMP-receptor interfaces are pharmacologically tractable, it may be possible to develop compounds targeting the RAMP1/CLR interface to assist in the treatment of asthma.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102356. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102356 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide involved both in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and in circulatory homeostasis. The high-affinity AM receptor is composed of receptor activity-modifying protein 2 or 3 (RAMP2 or -3) and the GPCR calcitonin receptor-like receptor. Testing our hypothesis that RAMP2 is a key determinant of the effects of AM on the vasculature, we generated and analyzed mice lacking RAMP2. Similar to AM-/- embryos, RAMP2-/- embryos died in utero at midgestation due to vascular fragility that led to severe edema and hemorrhage. Vascular ECs in RAMP2-/- embryos were severely deformed and detached from the basement membrane. In addition, the abnormally thin arterial walls of these mice had a severe disruption of their typically multilayer structure. Expression of tight junction, adherence junction, and basement membrane molecules by ECs was diminished in RAMP2-/- embryos, leading to paracellular leakage and likely contributing to the severe edema observed. In adult RAMP2+/- mice, reduced RAMP2 expression led to vascular hyperpermeability and impaired neovascularization. Conversely, ECs overexpressing RAMP2 had enhanced capillary formation, firmer tight junctions, and reduced vascular permeability. Our findings in human cells and in mice demonstrate that RAMP2 is a key determinant of the effects of AM on the vasculature and is essential for angiogenesis and vascular integrity.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2008; 118(1):29-39. DOI:10.1172/JCI33022 · 13.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent investigations have highlighted that endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators and immune regulating mechanisms are important for the resolution of inflammatory processes. A disruption of these mechanisms can be causally related not only to the initiation of unnecessary inflammation, but also to the persistence of several chronic inflammatory diseases. In asthma, chronic Th-2 driven eosinophilic inflammation of the airways is one of the central abnormalities. To date, elucidating the role of the different pro-inflammatory mediators involved in orchestrating the inflammatory processes in asthma has been the subject of intense research in both humans and animal models. However, the counter-regulatory mechanisms that co-determine the outcome in the contest of resolution vs persistence of the eosinophilic airway inflammation remain poorly understood. These are currently being investigated in animal models of chronic asthma. Elucidating these mechanisms is of relevance, since it can give rise to a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic airway inflammation in asthmatics. This novel concept of treatment involves the stimulation of endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways, rather than solely antagonising the various pro-inflammatory mediators. Here, we review and discuss the current knowledge about these endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators in clinical and experimental asthma.
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