Influenza is a leading cause of illness among children. Studies rarely have measured influenza vaccine effectiveness among young children, particularly when antigenic match between vaccine and circulating viruses is suboptimal. We assessed vaccine effectiveness against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza for children who were aged 6 to 59 months during the 2003-2004 influenza season.
In a case-control study that was conducted in a single pediatric practice, case patients who were aged 6 to 59 months and had laboratory-confirmed influenza were age matched 1:2 to eligible control subjects. Vaccination status was ascertained as of the date of the case patient's symptom onset. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate vaccine effectiveness, adjusting for underlying medical conditions and health care usage.
We identified 290 influenza case patients who were seen for medical care from November 1, 2003, to January 31, 2004. Vaccine effectiveness among fully vaccinated children, compared with unvaccinated children, was 49%. Partially vaccinated children who were aged 6 to 23 months had no significant reduction in influenza (vaccine effectiveness: -70%), but partially vaccinated children who were aged 24 to 59 months had a significant (65%) reduction in influenza, compared with unvaccinated children.
Full vaccination provided measurable protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza among children who were aged 6 to 59 months during a season with suboptimal vaccine match. No vaccine effectiveness was identified with partial vaccination among children who were aged 6 to 23 months, affirming that children need to be fully vaccinated to obtain protective effects. These results strengthen the evidence of the vaccine's ability to reduce substantially the burden of disease in this age group.
"A moderate boost on cross-reactive response to a novel influenza virus by seasonal vaccination may not lead to a complete protection against a pandemic, but might reduce the burden of infections substantially in affected subjects, which is often seen in young children receiving partial vaccination –. A surveillance study on military service members stationed in the US soil has found that prior seasonal vaccinations between 2004–2009 were positively associated with protection against clinically apparent and laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic H1N1 illness . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The campaign of 2009-2010 Northern Hemisphere seasonal vaccination was concurrent with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Using a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay, we evaluated the immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of 2009-2010 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in US adult and elderly populations. Vaccination of TIV resulted in a robust boost on the antibody response of all subjects to seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) and A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) with over 70% of recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. B/Brisbane/60/2008 was the least immunogenic among the three seasonal vaccine strains with <30% of TIV recipients reaching a seroprotective titer of 40. TIV vaccination also induced a moderate boost on the pandemic specific antibody responses. Twenty-four percent of adults and 36% of elderly reached a seroprotective HAI titer of 40 or more against pandemic A/South Carolina/18/2009 (H1N1) after receiving TIV compared to 4% and 7% at the beginning of vaccination, respectively. In addition, 22% of adults and 34% of elderly showed an increase of 4-fold or more in A/South Carolina/18/2009 specific HAI titers after TIV vaccination. The pandemic specific cross-reactive antibodies strongly correlated with the post-vaccination HAI titers against the seasonal H3N2 vaccine strain in all subjects.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e16650. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016650 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"One result of low diagnosis is that the number of cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza. The use of rapid testing for influenza may enhance the precision of the influenza diagnosis but the reduced sensitivity of these tests means that negative test results should be confirmed with RT-PCR and/or viral culture [18,20]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccination in infants and children with existing health complications is current practice in many countries, but healthy children are also susceptible to influenza, sometimes with complications. The under-recognised burden of disease in young children is greater than in elderly populations and the number of paediatric influenza cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza.
Vaccination of healthy children is not widespread in Europe despite clear demonstration of the benefits of vaccination in reducing the large health and economic burden of influenza. Universal vaccination of infants and children also provides indirect protection in other high-risk groups in the community. This paper contains the Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for the vaccination of infants and children against influenza. The aim of CEVAG is to encourage the efficient and safe use of vaccines to prevent and control infectious diseases.
CEVAG recommends the introduction of universal influenza vaccination for all children from the age of 6 months. Special attention is needed for children up to 60 months of age as they are at greatest risk. Individual countries should decide on how best to implement this recommendation based on their circumstances.
"However, the majority of these studies were conducted among children. In children less than 5 years of age and asthmatic children 6–17 years of age, LAIV was found to have superior efficacy and effectiveness in comparison to TIV    . A limited number of studies, mostly randomized trials or experimental challenge studies, have been conducted among adults. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited effectiveness data are available comparing live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) to inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) among adults. To compare the incidence of influenza-like illness following immunization of adults with LAIV vs. TIV, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of active component U.S. military personnel for the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons. Recruits experienced a much higher burden of disease compared to non-recruits, with crude incidence rates of influenza-like illness 2-16 times higher than non-recruits depending on the season and cohort. For both seasons, a slightly greater protection from influenza-like illness was found for non-recruits who received TIV compared to LAIV (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.17 (95% CI, 1.14-1.20) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.30-1.36), 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons, respectively). However, for Army and Air Force recruits, LAIV was found to provide significantly greater protection from influenza-like illnesses compared to TIV, with adjusted incidence rates of influenza-like illness 22-51% and 18-47% lower among LAIV compared to TIV recipients for the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons, respectively. Possible reasons for differences in recruit and non-recruit findings include differences in pre-existing influenza antibody levels, differing respiratory disease burden, and/or unmeasured confounding. Consideration of these findings should be made when developing influenza immunization policies.
Marie Smithgall, Celibell Y. Vargas, Carrie Reed, Lyn Finelli, Philip LaRussa, Elaine Larson, Lisa Saiman, Melissa S Stockwell
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