Dose and time-dependent effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on fracture-healing
ABSTRACT Fracture-healing is impaired in mice lacking a functional cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene or in rats continuously treated with COX-2 inhibitors. These observations indicate that COX-2 is a critical regulator of fracture repair. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to treat pain associated with musculoskeletal trauma and disease. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit COX-2 function and in so doing can impair fracture-healing. The goal of the present study was to determine how variations in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy ultimately affect fracture-healing.
Closed femoral fractures were made in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were treated with different doses of celecoxib (a COX-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) or were treated for different periods before or after fracture with celecoxib. Eight weeks after the fracture, healing was assessed with radiography and destructive torsional mechanical testing. The effect of celecoxib treatment on fracture callus prostaglandin E2 and F(2alpha) levels was determined as a measure of cyclooxygenase activity.
Celecoxib doses as small as 2 mg/kg/day reduced fracture callus mechanical properties and caused a significant increase in the proportion of nonunions. Similarly, treatment with celecoxib at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day for just five days reduced fracture callus mechanical properties and significantly increased the proportion of nonunions. Conversely, celecoxib therapy prior to fracture or initiated fourteen days after fracture did not significantly increase the proportion of nonunions. Celecoxib treatment at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day reduced fracture callus prostaglandin E2 and F(2alpha) levels by >60%.
COX-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy during the early stages of fracture repair significantly reduced fracture callus mechanical properties at later stages of healing and increased the proportion of nonunions in this animal model.
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ABSTRACT: Like other tissue injuries, bone fracture triggers an inflammatory response, which plays an important role in skeletal repair. Inflammation is believed to have both positive and negative effects on bone repair, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. To assess the role of inflammation on skeletal cell differentiation, we used mouse models of fracture repair that stimulate either intramembranous or endochondral ossification. In the first model, fractures are rigidly stabilized leading to direct bone formation, while in the second model, fracture instability causes cartilage and bone formation. We compared the inflammatory response in these two mechanical environments and found changes in the expression patterns of inflammatory genes and in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts. These results suggested that the inflammatory response could influence skeletal cell differentiation after fracture. We then exploited matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) that is expressed in inflammatory cells and osteoclasts, and which we previously showed is a potential regulator of cell fate decisions during fracture repair. Mmp9(-/-) mice heal stabilized fractures via endochondral ossification, while wild type mice heal via intramembranous ossification. In parallel, we observed increases in macrophages and T cells in the callus of Mmp9(-/-) compared to wild type mice. To assess the link between the profile of inflammatory cells and skeletal cell fate functionally, we transplanted Mmp9(-/-) mice with wild type bone marrow, to reconstitute a wild type hematopoietic lineage in interaction with the Mmp9(-/-) stroma and periosteum. Following transplantation, Mmp9(-/-) mice healed stabilized fractures via intramembranous ossification and exhibited a normal profile of inflammatory cells. Moreover, Mmp9(-/-) periosteal grafts healed via intramembranous ossification in wild type hosts, but healed via endochondral ossification in Mmp9(-/-) hosts. We observed that macrophages accumulated at the periosteal surface in Mmp9(-/-) mice, suggesting that cell differentiation in the periosteum is influenced by factors such as BMP2 that are produced locally by inflammatory cells. Taken together, these results show that MMP9 mediates indirect effects on skeletal cell differentiation by regulating the inflammatory response and the distribution of inflammatory cells, leading to the local regulation of periosteal cell differentiation.Bone 09/2012; 52(1):111-119. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.09.018 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although skeletal pain can have a marked impact on a patient's functional status and quality of life, relatively little is known about the specific populations of peripheral nerve fibers that drive non-malignant bone pain. In the present report, neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with capsaicin or vehicle and femoral fracture was produced when the animals were young adults (15-16 weeks old). Capsaicin treatment, but not vehicle, resulted in a significant (>70%) depletion in the density of calcitonin-gene related peptide positive (CGRP(+)) sensory nerve fibers, but not 200 kDa neurofilament H positive (NF200(+)) sensory nerve fibers in the periosteum. The periosteum is a thin, cellular and fibrous tissue that tightly adheres to the outer surface of all but the articulated surface of bone and appears to play a pivotal role in driving fracture pain. In animals treated with capsaicin, but not vehicle, there was a 50% reduction in the severity, but no change in the time course, of fracture-induced skeletal pain-related behaviors as measured by spontaneous flinching, guarding and weight bearing. These results suggest that both capsaicin-sensitive (primarily CGRP(+) C-fibers) and capsaicin-insensitive (primarily NF200(+) A-delta fibers) sensory nerve fibers participate in driving skeletal fracture pain. Skeletal pain can be a significant impediment to functional recovery following trauma-induced fracture, osteoporosis-induced fracture and orthopedic surgery procedures such as knee and hip replacement. Understanding the specific populations of sensory nerve fibers that need to be targeted to inhibit the generation and maintenance of skeletal pain may allow the development of more specific mechanism-based therapies that can effectively attenuate acute and chronic skeletal pain.Neuroscience 05/2009; 162(4):1244-54. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.05.065 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditional and COX-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment inhibits fracture healing in animal models. This indicates that either the inflammatory phase following a bone fracture is necessary for efficient or sufficient bone regeneration to heal the fracture or COX-2 may have a specific function during bone regeneration unrelated to inflammation. These observations also indicate that NSAID use during fracture healing may be contra-indicated. Thus, identification of different analgesics for fracture pain or other orthopaedic surgical procedures would be of significant clinical benefit. Inhibitors of p38 kinase also have significant analgesic properties. However, p38 kinase is a critical regulator of inflammation. To assess the potential use of p38 kinase inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to manage fracture pain, the analgesic properties of SCIO-469, a p38alpha kinase inhibitor, were assessed in a rat fracture model and compared to other common analgesics. In addition, the effects of SCIO-469 treatment on ultimate fracture healing outcomes were measured by radiography and torsional mechanical testing. The data indicate that SCIO-469 was an effective analgesic. No adverse events related to fracture healing were observed in rats treated with SCIO-469. Immunohistochemistry showed that p38 kinase is activated primarily in the first days following a fracture. These observations suggest that p38alpha kinase inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy to manage orthopaedic-related pain. These observations also indicate that COX-2 has a specific function during bone regeneration other than promoting inflammation.Pain 02/2009; 142(1-2):116-26. DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2008.12.019 · 5.84 Impact Factor