Salt concentration and particle density dependence of electrophoretic mobilities of spherical colloids in aqueous suspension.
ABSTRACT Using laser Doppler velocimetry in the superheterodyne mode, we conducted a systematic study of the electrophoretic mobility of dispersions of small silica spheres (a=18 nm) suspended in water at different salinities and particle concentrations. The concentration of NaCl was varied from 40 microM up to 16 mM, while the particle concentrations were varied between 4.2x10(18) and 2.1x10(20) m-3. We find a decrease of mobility with increasing salt concentrations and an increase with increased particle number densities. The latter observation is not backed by the standard cell model of electrophoresis with Shilov-Zharkikh boundary conditions. Rather, if the experimental data are interpreted within that model, an unexpected change of the zeta potential at constant added salt concentration results. Interestingly, all experimental data collapse onto a single master curve, if plotted versus the ratio C* of particle counterions to added salt ions. We obtain a logarithmic increase of mobility for C*<1 and a plateau for C*>1. This may indicate a change of the Stern layer structure not yet included in the theoretical model.
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ABSTRACT: On a superhydrophobic surface a liquid is exposed to a large air-water interface. The reduced wall friction is expected to cause a higher electro-osmotic mobility. On the other hand, the low charge density of a superhydrophobic surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility. Due to a lack of experimental data it has not been clear so far whether the reduced wall friction or the reduced charge density dominate the electrokinetic mobilities. To separate the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, the mobilities of colloids on a negatively charged hydrophilic, a superhydrophobic (Cassie) and a partially hydrophilized superhydrophobic (Cassie composite) coating were measured. To vary the charge density as well as its sign with respect to those of the colloids the partially hydrophilized surfaces were coated with polyelectrolytes. We analyzed the electrokinetic mobilities of negatively charged polystyrene colloids dispersed in aqueous medium on porous hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces by confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, the external electric field was parallel to the surface. The total electrokinetic mobilities on the superhydrophobic (Cassie) and negatively charged partially hydrophilized (Cassie composite) surfaces were similar, showing that electro-osmosis is small compared to electrophoresis. The positively charged Cassie composite surfaces tend to 'trap' the colloids due to attracting electrostatic interactions and rough morphology, reducing the mobility. Thus, either the charge density of the coatings in the Cassie composite state or its slip length is too low to enhance electro-osmosis.Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 11/2012; 24(46):464110. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this work we report on the simultaneous measurement of the hydrodynamic coefficient and the electric charge of single Bacillus subtilis spores. The latter has great importance in protein binding to spores and in the adhesion of spores onto surfaces. The charge and the hydrodynamic coefficient were measured by an accurate procedure based on the analysis of the motion of single spores confined by an optical trap. The technique has been validated using charged spherical polystyrene beads. The excellent agreement of our results with the expected values demonstrates the quality of our procedure. We measured the charge of spores of B. subtilis purified from a wild type strain and from two isogenic mutants characterized by an altered spore surface. Our technique is able to discriminate the three spore types used, by their charge and by their hydrodynamic coefficient which is related to the hydrophobic properties of the spore surface.Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 02/2014; 116C:568-575. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An integral equations theory is derived and applied to a modified colloidal primitive model (MCPM), for finite concentration colloidal dispersions. In MCPM the charge on the colloidal particle is assumed to be smeared on its surface. We find important quantitative and qualitative differences of the ζ-potential, induced charge, and the colloid-colloid electric effective force, calculated in the MCPM, with those obtained from the colloidal primitive model (CPM), where the colloidal charge is assumed to be in the center of the particle, in spite of the fact that, due to Gauss's law, both models have the same particle distribution function. In particular, for the same parameters, while the ζ-potential is positive in MCPM, is negative in the CPM, implying opposite electrophoretic mobilities, μ. An inverse μ has been theoretically predicted in the past, for infinite dilution colloidal dispersions. The MCPM could be a better model for some colloidal particles.In both models, the CPM and the MCPM, it is found a very longrange colloid-colloid correlation, in accordance with previous Monte Carlo simulations. The electrostatic, as well as entropic, like-charged colloid-colloid forces are oscillatory, implying a long-range attraction.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 08/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor