Folates play a key role in one-carbon metabolism essential for the biosynthesis of purines, thymidylate and hence DNA replication. The antifolate methotrexate has been rationally-designed nearly 60 years ago to potently block the folate-dependent enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) thereby achieving temporary remissions in childhood acute leukemia. Recently, the novel antifolates raltitrexed and pemetrexed that target thymidylate synthase (TS) and glycineamide ribonucleotide transformylase (GARTF) were introduced for the treatment of colorectal cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. (Anti)folates are divalent anions which predominantly use the reduced folate carrier (RFC) for their cellular uptake. (Anti)folates are retained intracellularly via polyglutamylation catalyzed by folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase (FPGS). As the intracellular concentration of antifolates is critical for their pharmacologic activity, polyglutamylation is a key determinant of antifolate cytotoxicity. However, anticancer drug resistance phenomena pose major obstacles towards curative cancer chemotherapy. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have identified a plethora of mechanisms of antifolate-resistance; these are frequently associated with qualitative and/or quantitative alterations in influx and/or efflux transporters of (anti)folates as well as in folate-dependent enzymes. These include inactivating mutations and/or down-regulation of the RFC and various alterations in the target enzymes DHFR, TS and FPGS. Furthermore, it has been recently shown that members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily including multidrug resistance proteins (MRP/ABCC) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) are low affinity, high capacity ATP-driven (anti)folate efflux transporters. This transport activity is in addition to their established facility to extrude multiple cytotoxic agents. Hence, by actively extruding antifolates, overexpressed MRPs and/or BCRP confer antifolate resistance. Moreover, down-regulation of MRPs and/or BCRP results in decreased folate efflux thereby leading to expansion of the intracellular folate pool and antifolate resistance. This chapter reviews and discusses the panoply of molecular modalities of antifolate-resistance in pre-clinical tumor cell systems in vitro and in vivo as well as in cancer patients. Currently emerging novel strategies for the overcoming of antifolate-resistance are presented. Finally, experimental evidence is provided that the identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms of antifolate-resistance may prove instrumental in the future development of rationally-based novel antifolates and strategies that could conceivably overcome drug-resistance phenomena.
"Considering that the development of drug-resistance continues to be a universal major obstacle towards curative cancer therapy (Assaraf, 2007; Gonen and Assaraf, 2012; Livney and Assaraf, 2013), is it possible to predict what mechanism that may confer resistance to proteasome DUB inhibitors? Mutation of the catalytic cysteines of USP14/UCHL5 could be expected to lead to loss of b-AP15 binding capacity. "
"Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most widely used anti-folate agents in chemotherapy, blocking de novo nucleotide synthesis by depleting reduced THFs, mainly through inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS). It displays substantial efficacy in treatment of a number of malignancies including breast cancer, head and neck cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, osteosarcoma, bladder cancer and choriocarcinoma . It has been postulated that increased SHMT activity is associated with the development of MTX resistance . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported arginase expression in human breast cancer cells and demonstrated that the inhibition of arginase by N(ω) hydroxy L-arginine (NOHA) in MDA-MB-468 cells induces apoptosis. However, arginase expression and its possible molecular targets in human breast tumor samples and potential clinical implications have not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate arginase expression in human breast tumor samples, and several established breast cancer cell lines, in which NOHA treatment selectively inhibits cell proliferation. The over-expression of Bcl2 in MDA-MB-468 cells abolished NOHA-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the mitochondria may be the main site of NOHA's action. We, therefore, undertook a proteomics approach to identify key mitochondrial targets of arginase in MDA-MB-468 cells. We identified 54 non-mitochondrial and 13 mitochondrial proteins that were differentially expressed in control and NOHA treated groups. Mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (mSHMT) was identified as one of the most promising targets of arginase. Both arginase II (Arg II) and mSHMT expressions were higher in human breast tumor tissues compared to the matched normal and there was a strong correlation between Arg II and mSHMT protein expression. MDA-MB-468 xenografts had significant upregulation of Arg II expression that preceded the induction of mSHMT expression. Small inhibitory RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of Arg II in MDA-MB-468 and HCC-1806 cells led to significant inhibition of both the mSHMT gene and protein expression. As mSHMT is a key player in folate metabolism, our data provides a novel link between arginine and folate metabolism in human breast cancer, both of which are critical for tumor cell proliferation.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(11):e79242. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079242 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Expression of DHFR and FGPS is upregulated whereas MTHFD1L is decreased, which could provide a connection to the observed changes in purine metabolism through ATP/ADP-dependent interconversion of 10-formyl-THF . Interestingly, antifolates, such as the DHFR interactor methotrexate are used as antineoplastic agents . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemotherapeutic compound, cisplatin causes various kinds of DNA lesions but also triggers other pertubations, such as ER and oxidative stress. We and others have shown that treatment of pluripotent stem cells with cisplatin causes a plethora of transcriptional and post-translational alterations that, to a major extent, point to DNA damage response (DDR) signaling. The orchestrated DDR signaling network is important to arrest the cell cycle and repair the lesions or, in case of damage beyond repair, eliminate affected cells. Failure to properly balance the various aspects of the DDR in stem cells contributes to ageing and cancer. Here, we performed metabolic profiling by mass spectrometry of embryonic stem (ES) cells treated for different time periods with cisplatin. We then integrated metabolomics with transcriptomics analyses and connected cisplatin-regulated metabolites with regulated metabolic enzymes to identify enriched metabolic pathways. These included nucleotide metabolism, urea cycle and arginine and proline metabolism. Silencing of identified proline metabolic and catabolic enzymes indicated that altered proline metabolism serves as an adaptive, rather than a toxic response. A group of enriched metabolic pathways clustered around the metabolite S-adenosylmethionine, which is a hub for methylation and transsulfuration reactions and polyamine metabolism. Enzymes and metabolites with pro- or anti-oxidant functions were also enriched but enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species were not measured in cisplatin-treated ES cells. Lastly, a number of the differentially regulated metabolic enzymes were identified as target genes of the transcription factor p53, pointing to p53-mediated alterations in metabolism in response to genotoxic stress. Altogether, our findings reveal interconnecting metabolic pathways that are responsive to cisplatin and may serve as signaling modules in the DDR in pluripotent stem cells.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76476. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076476 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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