Role of cancer antigen-125 from pleural & ascitic fluid samples in non malignant conditions
ABSTRACT CA-125, an ovarian tumor marker is known to increase in non malignant conditions such as tubercular and non tubercular pleuritis and ascites. We undertook this study to evaluate non-specific rise in CA-125 levels in conditions associated with pleural effusion and ascites and also to understand the mechanism of its secretion.
CA-125 levels in 38 pleural and 46 ascitic fluid samples from non malignant cases and 10 blood samples from pulmonary tuberculosis cases were estimated by ELISA. The ascitic fluid samples were collected from cases of bacterial peritonitis, tuberculosis, hepatitis, cirrhosis of other aetiology and pleural fluid samples were from cases of tubercular, pyogenic, cardiomegaly and other conditions.
Both ascitic and pleural fluid samples (transudative and exudative) showed elevated CA- 125 levels. The CA-125 levels were significantly higher in ascitic fluid samples than in pleural fluid samples.
Our findings showed that elevated levels of CA-125 in pleural and ascitic fluid could be because of varied aetiologies which need to be ruled out before considering malignancy. Peritoneum has a greater capacity to secrete CA-125 than the pleural epithelium and the secretion occurs following inflammation or mechanical distress. Pulmonary tuberculosis as a closed lesion without involvement of pleural epithelium does not evoke high CA-125 release.
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ABSTRACT: In previous studies we described the use of a retrospective collection of ovarian cancer and benign disease samples, in combination with a large set of multiplexed immunoassays and a multivariate pattern recognition algorithm, to develop an 11-biomarker classification profile that is predictive for the presence of epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study, customized, Luminex-based multiplexed immunoassay kits were GMP-manufactured and the classification profile was refined from 11 to 8 biomarkers (CA-125, epidermal growth factor receptor, CA 19-9, C-reactive protein, tenascin C, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein CIII, and myoglobin). The customized kits and the 8-biomarker profile were then validated in a double-blinded manner using prospective samples collected from women scheduled for surgery, with a gynecologic oncologist, for suspicion of having ovarian cancer. The performance observed in model development held in validation, demonstrating 81.1% sensitivity (95% CI 72.6 – 87.9%) for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 85.4% specificity (95% CI 81.1 – 88.9%) for benign ovarian conditions. The specificity for normal healthy women was 95.6% (95% CI 83.6 – 99.2%). These results have encouraged us to undertake a second validation study arm, currently in progress, to examine the performance of the 8-biomarker profile on the population of women not under the surgical care of a gynecologic oncologist.Nature Precedings
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the United States. When detected early, the 5-year survival rate is 92%, although most cases remain undetected until the late stages where 5-year survival rates are 30%. Serum biomarkers may hold promise. Although many markers have been proposed and multivariate diagnostic models were built to fit the data on small, disparate sample sets, there has been no systematic evaluation of these markers on a single, large, well-defined sample set. To address this, we evaluated the dysregulation of 204 molecules in a sample set consisting of serum from 294 patients, collected from multiple collection sites, under a well-defined Gynecologic Oncology Group protocol. The population, weighted with early-stage cancers to assess biomarker value for early detection, contained all stages of ovarian cancer and common benign gynecologic conditions. The panel of serum molecules was assayed using rigorously qualified, high-throughput, multiplexed immunoassays and evaluated for their independent ovarian cancer diagnostic potential. Seventy-seven biomarkers were dysregulated in the ovarian cancer samples, although cancer antigen 125, C-reactive protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, interleukin 10, interleukin 8, connective tissue growth factor, haptoglobin, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 stood out as the most informative. When analyzed by cancer subtype and stage, there were differences in the relative value of biomarkers. In this study, using a large sample cohort, we show that some of the reported ovarian cancer biomarkers are more robust than others, and we identify additional informative candidates. These findings may guide the development of multivariate diagnostic models, which should be tested on additional, prospectively collected samples.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 11/2008; 17(10):2872-81. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0464 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most women with a clinical presentation consistent with ovarian cancer have benign conditions. Therefore methods to distinguish women with ovarian cancer from those with benign conditions would be beneficial. We describe the development and preliminary evaluation of a serum-based multivariate assay for ovarian cancer. This hypothesis-driven study examined whether an informative pattern could be detected in stage I disease that persists through later stages. Sera, collected under uniform protocols from multiple institutions, representing 176 cases and 187 controls from women presenting for surgery were examined using high-throughput, multiplexed immunoassays. All stages and common subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, and the most common benign ovarian conditions were represented. A panel of 104 antigens, 44 autoimmune and 56 infectious disease markers were assayed and informative combinations identified. Using a training set of 91 stage I data sets, representing 61 individual samples, and an equivalent number of controls, an 11-analyte profile, composed of CA-125, CA 19-9, EGF-R, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein CIII, MIP-1alpha, IL-6, IL-18 and tenascin C was identified and appears informative for all stages and common subtypes of ovarian cancer. Using a testing set of 245 samples, approximately twice the size of the model building set, the classifier had 91.3% sensitivity and 88.5% specificity. While these preliminary results are promising, further refinement and extensive validation of the classifier in a clinical trial is necessary to determine if the test has clinical value. We describe a blood-based assay using 11 analytes that can distinguish women with ovarian cancer from those with benign conditions. Preliminary evaluation of the classifier suggests it has the potential to offer approximately 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity. While promising, the performance needs to be assessed in a blinded clinical validation study.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(2):e4599. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0004599 · 3.53 Impact Factor