Sox2: a possible driver of the basal-like phenotype in sporadic breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Tumours arising in BRCA1 mutation carriers and sporadic basal-like breast carcinomas have similar phenotypic, immunohistochemical and clinical characteristics. SOX2 is an embryonic transcription factor located at chromosome 3q, a region frequently gained in sporadic basal-like and BRCA1 germline mutated tumours. The aim of the study was to establish whether sox2 expression was related to basal-like sporadic breast tumours. Two hundred and twenty-six sporadic node-negative invasive breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically analysed for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), CK5/6, EGFR, vimentin, HER2, ki67, p53 and sox2 using tissue microarrays. Tumours were considered to have basal-like phenotype if they were ER/HER2-negative and CK5/6 and/or EGFR-positive. Thirty cases of this series (13.7%) displayed a basal-like phenotype. Sox2 expression was observed in 16.7% of cases and was significantly more frequently expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas (43.3% in basal-like, 10.6% in luminal and 13.3% in HER2+ tumours, P<0.001). Moreover, Sox2 showed a statistically significant inverse association with ER and PR (P=0.001 and 0.017, respectively) and direct association with CK5/6, EGFR and vimentin (P=0.022, 0.005 and <0.001, respectively). Sox2 is preferentially expressed in tumours with basal-like phenotype and may play a role in defining their less differentiated/'stem cell' phenotypic characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SQCCL) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. Unlike non-smoker adenocarcinoma of the lung, where highly efficient tyrosine kinase inhibitors are available for treating mutant EGFR or ALK-rearranged, no targetable biomarkers are available for SQCCL. The frequent and focal amplification of FGFR1 has generated great expectations in offering new therapeutical options in case of 16-22% of SQCCL patients. Broad 3q chromosome amplification is widely recognized as the most common chromosomal aberration found in SQCCL, where PIK3CA, SOX2, ACK1, PRKCI, TP63, PLD1, ECT2, and others genes are located. Although SOX2 has been postulated as a key regulator of basal stem cells transformation and tumor progression, it seems to confer a good prognosis in SQCCL. It is known that each patient might carry a different length of 3q chromosome amplicon. Thus, we suggest that the number and the biological importance of the genes spanned along each patient's 3q amplicon might help to explain inter-individual outcome variations of the disease and its potential predictive value, especially when relevant oncogenes such as those mentioned above are implicated. Currently, there is no clinical predictive data available from clinical trials. In this review, we have focused on the potential role of FGFR1 in SQCCL prognosis. Additionally, we have explored recently available public data on the comprehensive genomic characterization of SQCCL, in relation to the protein-coding genes that have a strong gene copy number - mRNA correlation in 3q chromosome, that were previously described as potential driver oncogenes or its modifiers in SQCCL.04/2013; 2(2):101-11. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2218-6751.2013.03.05
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ABSTRACT: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a potentially devastating malignancy. The pathogenesis of this cancer remains poorly elucidated. Previous studies focused on analysis of expression and function of known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, emerging reports highlight that it is also important to analyze the expression of genes that are ectopically expressed in CTCL (e.g., embryonic stem cell genes (ESC), cancer testis (CT) genes, etc.). Currently, it is not known whether ESC genes are expressed in CTCL. In the current work, we analyze by RT-PCR the expression of 26 ESC genes, many of which are known to regulate pluripotency and promote cancer stem cell-like phenotype, in a historic cohort of 60 patients from Boston and in a panel of 11 patient-derived CTCL cell lines and compare such expression to benign inflammatory dermatoses that often clinically mimic CTCL. Our findings document that many critical ESC genes including NANOG, SOX2, OCT4 (POU5F1) and their upstream and downstream signaling members are expressed in CTCL. Similarly, polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) genes (i.e., EZH2, EED, and SUZ12) are also expressed in CTCL lesional skin. Furthermore, select ESC genes (OCT4, EED, TCF3, THAP11, CHD7, TIP60, TRIM28) are preferentially expressed in CTCL samples when compared to benign skin biopsies. Our work suggests that ESC genes are ectopically expressed together with CT genes, thymocyte development genes and B cell-specific genes and may be working in concert to promote tumorigenesis. Specifically, while ESC genes may be promoting cancer stem cell-like phenotype, CT genes may be contributing to aneuploidy and genomic instability by producing aberrant chromosomal translocations. Further analysis of ESC expression and function in this cancer will greatly enhance our fundamental understanding of CTCL and will help us identify novel therapeutic targets.OncoImmunology 11/2014; 3(11):e970025. DOI:10.4161/21624011.2014.970025 · 6.28 Impact Factor
Cancer Research 05/2015; 75(9 Supplement):P2-06-05-P2-06-05. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.SABCS14-P2-06-05 · 9.28 Impact Factor