Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are widely used to reduce disease activity and joint damage, and to improve health-related quality of life in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriatic arthritis. To date, no increased risk of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity, or adverse pregnancy outcome (such as birth defects, premature birth, and low birth weight) has been reported in patients with inflammatory arthropathies treated with anti-TNF therapy, compared with the general population. However, the available data are limited, and methotrexate, which is commonly used in combination with anti-TNF drugs, is teratogenic. Until more data are available, no firm conclusions can be reached regarding the safety of anti-TNF therapy in pregnancy. Nevertheless, in selected cases where there is high disease activity, anti-TNF therapy might be recommended, depending on the results of individual risk-benefit analyses. Fully informed consent from the mother is needed in such cases. Anti-TNF agents are not usually used during lactation, although the risk of toxicity is probably negligible.
"To date, neither increased risk of embryotoxicity nor teratogenicity, nor adverse pregnancy outcome (such as birth defects, premature birth, and low birth weight) have been reported in arthropatic patients treated with anti-TNF therapy versus the general population (Skomsvoll et al 2007). However, the available data are limited. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic plaque psoriasis affects more than 2% of world population, has a chronic recurrent behavior, gives a heavy burden to the patients' quality of life, and hence remains a huge medical and social problem. The clinical results of conventional therapies of psoriasis are not satisfactory. According to the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular basis of psoriasis, it is defined as an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease. A new generation of biological drugs, targeting molecules and cells involved into perturbed pro-inflammatory immune response in the psoriatic skin and joints, has been recently designed and applied clinically. These biological agents are bioengineered proteins such as chimeric and humanized antibodies and fusion proteins. In particular, they comprise the antitumor necrosis factor-alpha agents etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab, with clinical efficacy in both moderate-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and the anti-CD11a efalizumab with selective therapeutic action exclusively in the skin. Here, we overview recent findings on the molecular pathways relevant to the inflammatory response in psoriasis and present our clinical experience with the drugs currently employed in the dermatologic manifestations, namely etanercept, infliximab, and efalizumab. The growing body of clinical data on the efficacy and safety of antipsoriasis biological drugs is reviewed as well. Particular focus is given to long-term safety concerns and feasibility of combined therapeutic protocols to ameliorate clinical results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder not uncommonly seen in pregnant patients. Several drugs have been approved for its treatment in non-pregnant patients, but special precautions are necessary when selecting a treatment plan during pregnancy to prevent harm to the fetus and child. This article reviews the treatment options for the treatment of psoriasis in the pregnant and lactating patient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains and the coinfection with HIV, together with advances in immunology, have led to renewed interest regarding ways to exploit the immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis therapeutically. Here we review the fundamentals of tuberculosis therapy in view of the epidemiological and clinical challenges, and explore the experience with immune-based therapies for the treatment of active tuberculosis. These immune-based therapies are discussed here with the aim of assessing their potential use as adjuncts to chemotherapy.
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