Neuropathologic heterogeneity in HDDD1: a familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions and progranulin mutation.

Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.
Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders (Impact Factor: 2.69). 01/2007; 21(1):1-7. DOI: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e31803083f2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hereditary dysphasic disinhibition dementia (HDDD) describes a familial disorder characterized by personality changes, and language and memory deficits. The neuropathology includes frontotemporal lobar atrophy, neuronal loss and gliosis and, in most cases, abundant Abeta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). A Pick/Alzheimer's spectrum was proposed for the original family (HDDD1). Here we report the clinicopathologic case of an HDDD1 individual using modern immunohistochemical methods, contemporary neuropathologic diagnostic criteria to distinguish different frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLDs), and progranulin (PRGN) mutation analysis. Clinical onset was at age 62 years with personality changes and disinhibition, followed by nonfluent dysphasia, and memory loss that progressed to muteness and total dependence with death at age 84 years. There was severe generalized brain atrophy (weight=570 g). Histopathology showed superficial microvacuolation, marked neuronal loss, gliosis, and ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative cytoplasmic and intranuclear neuronal inclusions in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. There were also frequent neuritic plaques and NFTs in parietal and occipital cortices. The case met neuropathologic criteria for both FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and Alzheimer disease (Braak NFT stage V). We discovered a novel pathogenic PGRN mutation c.5913 A>G (IVS6-2 A>G) segregating with FTLD-U in this kindred. In conclusion, HDDD1 is an FTLD-U caused by a PGRN mutation and is neuropathologically heterogeneous with Alzheimer disease as a common comorbidity.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The traditional method of classifying neurodegenerative diseases is based on the original clinico-pathological concept supported by 'consensus' criteria and data from molecular pathological studies. This review discusses first, current problems in classification resulting from the coexistence of different classificatory schemes, the presence of disease heterogeneity and multiple pathologies, the use of 'signature' brain lesions in diagnosis, and the existence of pathological processes common to different diseases. Second, three models of neurodegenerative disease are proposed: (1) that distinct diseases exist ('discrete' model), (2) that relatively distinct diseases exist but exhibit overlapping features ('overlap' model), and (3) that distinct diseases do not exist and neurodegenerative disease is a 'continuum' in which there is continuous variation in clinical/pathological features from one case to another ('continuum' model). Third, to distinguish between models, the distribution of the most important molecular 'signature' lesions across the different diseases is reviewed. Such lesions often have poor 'fidelity', i.e., they are not unique to individual disorders but are distributed across many diseases consistent with the overlap or continuum models. Fourth, the question of whether the current classificatory system should be rejected is considered and three alternatives are proposed, viz., objective classification, classification for convenience (a 'dissection'), or analysis as a continuum.
    Folia neuropathologica / Association of Polish Neuropathologists and Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences. 01/2012; 50(3):201-8.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP) is most commonly caused by progranulin (GRN) gene mutation. To characterize cortical degeneration in these cases, changes in density of the pathology across the cortical laminae of the frontal and temporal lobe were studied in seven cases of FTLD-TDP with GRN mutation using quantitative analysis and polynomial curve fitting. In 50% of gyri studied, neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) exhibited a peak of density in the upper cortical laminae. Most frequently, neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII) and dystrophic neurites (DN) exhibited a density peak in lower and upper laminae respectively, glial inclusions (GI) being distributed in low densities across all laminae. Abnormally enlarged neurons (EN) were distributed either in the lower laminae or were more uniformly distributed across the cortex. The distribution of all neurons present varied between cases and regions, but most commonly exhibited a bimodal distribution, density peaks occurring in upper and lower laminae. Vacuolation primarily affected the superficial laminae and density of glial cell nuclei increased with distance across the cortex from pia mater to white matter. The densities of the NCI, GI, NII, and DN were not spatially correlated. The laminar distribution of the pathology in GRN mutation cases was similar to previously reported sporadic cases of FTLD-TDP. Hence, pathological changes initiated by GRN mutation, and by other causes in sporadic cases, appear to follow a parallel course resulting in very similar patterns of cortical degeneration in FTLD-TDP.
    The International journal of neuroscience 02/2014; · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP). In addition to TDP-43-positive neuronal and glial inclusions, C9ORF72-linked FTLD-TDP has characteristic TDP-43-negative neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions as well as dystrophic neurites in the hippocampus and cerebellum. These lesions are immunopositive for ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins, such as sequestosome-1/p62 and ubiquilin-2. Studies examining the frequency of the C9ORF72 mutation in clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) have found a small proportion of AD cases with the mutation. This prompted us to systematically explore the frequency of Alzheimer-type pathology in a series of 17 FTLD-TDP cases with mutations in C9ORF72 (FTLD-C9ORF72). We identified four cases with sufficient Alzheimer-type pathology to meet criteria for intermediate-to-high-likelihood AD. We compared AD pathology in the 17 FTLD-C9ORF72 to 13 cases of FTLD-TDP linked to mutations in the gene for progranulin (FTLD-GRN) and 36 cases of sporadic FTLD (sFTLD). FTLD-C9ORF72 cases had higher Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage than FTLD-GRN. Increased tau pathology in FTLD-C9ORF72 was assessed with thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy-based neurofibrillary tangle counts and with image analysis of tau burden in temporal cortex and hippocampus. FTLD-C9ORF72 had significantly more neurofibrillary tangles and higher tau burden compared with FTLD-GRN. The differences were most marked in limbic regions. On the other hand, sFTLD and FTLD-C9ORF72 had a similar burden of tau pathology. These results suggest FTLD-C9ORF72 has increased propensity for tau pathology compared to FTLD-GRN, but not sFTLD. The accumulation of tau as well as lesions immunoreactive for ubiquitin and ubiquitin-binding proteins (p62 and ubiquilin-2) suggests that mutations in C9ORF72 may involve disrupted protein degradation that favors accumulation of multiple different proteins.
    Acta Neuropathologica 09/2012; · 9.78 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014