Comparison between sol-gel-derived anatase- and rutile-structured TiO2 coatings in soft-tissue environment.
ABSTRACT The bioactivity of the surface reactive TiO(2) coatings for medical implants can be locally modified by CO(2) laser processing to match with the properties of surrounding tissues. The TiO(2) coatings heat-treated at 500 degrees C exhibit in vitro bioactivity. With further CO(2) laser treatment they exhibit enhanced in vitro bioactivity. The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the performance of heat-treated anatase-structured TiO(2) coatings with preheat-treated and CO(2) laser-treated rutile-structured coatings in terms of their ability to attach soft connective tissues. The coatings were characterized with TF-XRD and AFM. TiO(2)-coated discs were implanted in rats. The samples were analyzed with routine histology, SEM-EDS, and TEM. In both groups, already at 3 days, soft connective tissues were in immediate contact with the surface. No thick crystalline CaP layer was detected by SEM-EDS, but a thin amorphous CaP layer was detected by XPS. No gap between the cell membrane and the coating could be observed in TEM pictures. No differences were observed between the anatase- and rutile-structured coatings in terms of tissue responses. Further studies are needed to verify if the tissues are adherent to the surface of the implant.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and attachment of human gingival fibroblasts on nonresorbable sol-gel-derived nanoporous titania (TiO2) coated discs and noncoated commercially pure titania (cpTi) discs in vitro. The strength of attachment was evaluated using serial trypsinization. The number of cells detached from TiO2-substrates was 30% +/- 3%, whereas those detached from the cpTi was 58% +/- 4% indicating a stronger cell attachment on the coated surfaces. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images fewer cells, with more rounded shape, were seen with cpTi than with TiO2 after the detachment assay. Fibroblasts grew more efficiently on TiO2 than on cpTi substrates, showing significantly higher cell activities at all times. In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a continuous layer of two to three cells thick covered the coated and noncoated discs after 7 days of culture. The plasma membrane of cells in contact with the coating was in close opposition and the cytoplasm was ultrastructurally similar to the cells grown on noncoated discs with well-preserved organelles. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the sol-gel-derived TiO2 coatings can facilitate cell growth and attachment of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium in vitro. This in vitro study is in line with our previous in vivo observations of improved soft tissue attachment of TiO2 coatings in comparison with cpTi.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 10/2010; 95(1):269-75. · 2.63 Impact Factor