Comparison between sol-gel-derived anatase- and rutile-structured TiO2 coatings in soft-tissue environment
ABSTRACT The bioactivity of the surface reactive TiO(2) coatings for medical implants can be locally modified by CO(2) laser processing to match with the properties of surrounding tissues. The TiO(2) coatings heat-treated at 500 degrees C exhibit in vitro bioactivity. With further CO(2) laser treatment they exhibit enhanced in vitro bioactivity. The aim of this in vivo study was to compare the performance of heat-treated anatase-structured TiO(2) coatings with preheat-treated and CO(2) laser-treated rutile-structured coatings in terms of their ability to attach soft connective tissues. The coatings were characterized with TF-XRD and AFM. TiO(2)-coated discs were implanted in rats. The samples were analyzed with routine histology, SEM-EDS, and TEM. In both groups, already at 3 days, soft connective tissues were in immediate contact with the surface. No thick crystalline CaP layer was detected by SEM-EDS, but a thin amorphous CaP layer was detected by XPS. No gap between the cell membrane and the coating could be observed in TEM pictures. No differences were observed between the anatase- and rutile-structured coatings in terms of tissue responses. Further studies are needed to verify if the tissues are adherent to the surface of the implant.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate peri-implant soft tissue attachment and alveolar bone height on nanoporous TiO(2) thin film on commercial titanium dental implants compared with unmodified standard implants. In six adult beagle dogs, the mandibular premolars P2-P4 were extracted bilaterally. Sol-gel-derived nanoporous TiO(2) thin film was produced on smooth coronal part of standard ITI Straumann implants (4.1 mm x 8.0 mm) by dip coating method. After 3 months healing period of the extraction sockets modified (n=24) and unmodified (n=11) control implants were placed bilaterally. The animals were killed after 8 weeks and the samples were retrieved and processed for histologic/histomorfometric and TEM/SEM evaluations. Histological examination showed mild or absent inflammatory reaction in peri-implant connective tissues around the surface modified implants. Further, junctional epithelium (JE)/connective tissue (CT) appeared to be in immediate contact with the experimental implants. Of the experimental implants, 22% were judged to be detached from the implant surface while 45% of the untreated control implants were detached. Dense plaques of hemidesmosomes were found in TEM evaluation of the JE cell membrane facing the surface-treated implants. In the histomorfometric analysis, the distance between the implant margin and alveolar bone crest was significantly shorter in surface-treated implants than in the control implants (P<0.02). Nanoporous sol-gel-derived TiO(2) thin film on ITI Straumann dental implants improved soft tissue attachment in vivo.Clinical Oral Implants Research 04/2008; 19(4):348-55. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2007.01478.x · 3.12 Impact Factor