Cytokines in HIV-associated cardiomyopathy
AP-HP, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Université Paris-Sud 11, Faculté de Médecine, de Bicêtre, France 94804 Villejuif, France.International journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 4.04). 09/2007; 120(2):150-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.11.143
Among the multiple cardiac manifestations occurring in HIV-infected patients, cardiomyopathy is one of the most challenging. Its incidence has only slightly decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Also, its pathogenesis remains relatively unclear. Although several studies demonstrated the presence of HIV genome in the heart of patients, more recent developments found that viral infection plays an indirect role only, as well as they recognized the contribution of proinflammatory cytokines in the progression of the disease. Experimental studies on animals and cultured myocytes have established the signalling pathway triggered by proinflammatory cytokines in heart failure and cardiomyopathy. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 promote expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cardiomyocytes through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB). TNF-alpha and high concentrations of NO also induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis by TNF type 1 receptor activation. This biological framework, which is also involved in progression of cardiomyopathy in humans, is more pronounced in HIV-infected patients, in whom proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 are increased, resulting in an enhanced expression of cardiac iNOS, especially in patients with a low CD4 T cell count. This may account for the worse outcome of heart failure in HIV-infected patients. However, there are only few data today to support future therapeutic implications of cytokines antagonism in treatment of HIV-infected patients with cardiomyopathy. Whether modulation of TNF production or selective inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway could be useful approaches remains uncertain.
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ABSTRACT: As the number of children infected with HIV rises so does the number of patients with cardiac complications. These complications are miscellenous with uncharacteristic symptoms. Children with congestive cardiomiopathy resulting from HIV infection may manifest symptoms and signs of cardiac failure but most frequently the clinical course mimics infection of the respiratory system. All HIV positive children with symptoms suggesting respiratory tract infection must be evaluated cardiologically. In this paper we present an HIV infected 2,5 year old boy with congestive cardiomiopathy.Pediatria polska 11/2007; 82(11):889-892. DOI:10.1016/S0031-3939(07)70323-2
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ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of cardiac alterations in necropsies of AIDS patients in pre-HAART era and better understand the pathogenesis of HIV-related cardiomyopathy. Retrospective study of 94 complete necropsies. Macroscopic, histopathologic (histochemical, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques) and ultra structural myocardial evaluation (23 cases). Cardiac alterations were observed in 94.4%; 74% showed variable degrees of cardiac dilation not related to known cardiovascular diseases. Eighty-two percent (81.8%) of patients with biventricular dilation showed diffuse-regressive alterations (thinning and waving cardiomyocytes with increase of lipofuscin pigment granules). Myocarditis was diagnosed in 27 cases (28.7%), 16 (59.3%) of known etiology. The ultra structural study has revealed cardiomyocytes alterations (mitochondriosis, loss of myofibrils, increase in the amount of perinuclear-lipofuscin pigment granules) associated to activation signals of capillary-endothelial cells (enhancement of pseudopodia and transcellular channels). Cardiomyocytes' apoptosis was demonstrated at structural level in 10 (43.5%) patients; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) was detected in 17/18 cases. This pioneer study described the association of histopathological and ultra structural findings (thinning and waving cardiomyocytes with increase of lipofuscin pigment granules, mitochondriosis and loss of myofibrils) with different degrees of cardiac-chamber dilation probably representing a spectrum of alterations that would lead to myocardial dysfunction and development of HIV-related cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyocytes' apoptosis observed at ultra structural level and demonstration of TNF alpha associated to described alterations suggest that this cytokine plays an important role in both negative-inotropic effect and capacity to induce apoptosis through death receptor-controlled pathway.International journal of cardiology 02/2008; 132(1):90-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.10.057 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ventricular dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) develop among untreated HIV-infected people at much higher rates than among HIV-negative individuals, resulting in significant contributions to morbidity and mortality. Mechanisms underlying development of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy (HIVCM) are as yet poorly understood. The well-characterized simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of HIV infection provides a unique context for HIVCM pathogenesis studies in that SIV-infected rhesus monkeys develop myocardial lesions and contractile dysfunction similar to those described in HIV-infected people, suggesting a shared disease mechanism. Lymphocytic myocarditis is a commonly reported finding in AIDS patients at autopsy and constitutes one of several conditions known to predispose to development of DCM, irrespective of HIV-infection status. As lymphocytic myocarditis also occurs with high frequency among SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, a retrospective analysis of rhesus monkey cardiac tissue collected at necropsy was performed to examine viral and cellular correlates of lymphocytic inflammation within myocardial tissue. One subpopulation of macrophages, which has been reported by other groups to be associated with an anti-inflammatory phenotype, was found to correlate inversely with lymphocytic infiltration and positively with numbers of virus infected cells, suggesting effects of an anti-inflammatory cytokine production profile. In contrast, the detrimental effects of inflammatory cytokines on myocardial structure and function are well-recognized and HIV infection in general is characterized by chronic immune activation and inflammatory cytokine dysregulation. To further investigate a role for myocardial cytokine production in development of HIVCM, a prospective study was conducted in which SIV-infected rhesus monkeys and uninfected controls were treated with recurrent administration of inactivated Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria (MAC). SIV-infected, MAC-treated animals rapidly developed significant ventricular systolic dysfunction and chamber dilatation not seen in control groups, suggesting an exaggerated myocardial sensitivity to exogenous antigenic stimulation. Concurrent treatment with the TNFα antagonist etanercept completely abrogated development of these changes, strongly implicating a causative role for TNFα in evolution of the contractile dysfunction and chamber remodeling. Findings reported from the current studies suggest that characteristics of local myocardial macrophage populations and the myocardial tissue cytokine milieu may play more important roles than lymphocytic infiltration, cardiomyocyte damage, or viral proteins in the pathogenesis of HIVCM.
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