Right congenital diaphragmatic hernia: an 18-year experience
ABSTRACT Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of right congenital diaphragmatic hernia (RCDH) are far less well known than the more common left CDH (LCDH). In addition, onset of RCDH beyond the neonatal period with a spectrum of atypical symptoms is not unusual. A retrospective analysis of RCDH treated at a single center over 18 years has been reviewed with regard to outcome after the introduction of a new treatment protocol for CDH.
All charts of patients with CDH between 1987 and 2004 were reviewed. Twenty-nine patients with RCDH were identified. The patients were divided into 2 historical groups: group 1, from 1987 to 1998 (16 patients), and group 2, from 1999 to 2004 (13 patients). From 1999, at the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Padua, the management of a baby born with CDH has been standardized and includes planned delivery at term, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation since birth, inhaled nitric oxide if required, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a "last resort," and delayed repair once the infant is hemodynamically stable. Patients with either prenatal diagnosis of RCDH or early onset of symptoms (<6 hours of life) were considered "high risk," and those with late onset (>6 hours) were considered "low risk."
Of 29 patients, prenatal diagnosis was available in 8 (27.5%) and major associated malformations in 8 patients (27.5%). Eight (50%) of 16 cases from group 1 and 9 (69.2%) of 13 cases from group 2 were high-risk patients. There was a trend in favor of a higher survival among high-risk patients from group 2 (25% vs 44%), although this was not statistically significant. As expected, all low-risk patients survived (P = .0001). Plain thorax x-ray was diagnostic in 23 (82.1%) cases, initially normal in 3, not performed in 1, and misinterpreted as right lower lobe pneumonia in 2. At operation, the prosthetic patch was required in 2 (9%) of 22 cases and the peritoneal sac was found in 4 (13.7%).
(1) The rate of prenatal diagnosis of RCDH was low and remained stable throughout the examined period. (2) The introduction of a treatment protocol, using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation since birth, improved the survival of high-risk patients with RCDH, although the data did not reach statistical significance. (3) The majority (75%) of low-risk patients presented beyond the first week of life with a variety of aspecific gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms that accounted for initial misdiagnosis. (4) Even in these cases, the outcome was excellent.
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ABSTRACT: Right-sided diaphragmatic defects represent less than 20% of all congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH). Recent data suggest that right CDH (R-CDH) may carry a disproportionately high morbidity as well as increased rates of extracorporeal support when compared with left CDH. Treatment of infants with R-CDH may be further complicated by anatomical distortion unique to right-sided defects. We report 2 cases of azygous vein cannulation in neonates with large isolated R-CDH. Both infants had postnatal deteriorations within 48 hours, met our criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and underwent venoarterial cannulations through the right neck. In each case, the venous cannula passed directly into the azygous vein and failed to provide adequate ECMO support. Echocardiography confirmed both cases of azygous cannulation. In one child, the right atrium was successfully cannulated after 90 minutes of extensive cannula manipulation. This child survived a 5-day ECMO course and is alive at 22-month follow-up. In the second child, despite prolonged efforts at cannula repositioning, cannulation of the right atrium was not achieved. We did not offer central cannulation because of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course, with expiration in several hours. At autopsy, a dilated azygous vein was evident as a result of inferior vena cava compression by a malpositioned liver. The possibility of azygous vein cannulation may be increased in neonates with R-CDH and has not been previously reported. When evaluating infants with R-CDH for ECMO, clinicians must recognize the possibility of azygous cannulation and its potentially lethal consequences, and should anticipate alternative venous cannulation.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 01/2008; 42(12):2123-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2007.08.007 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with high mortality due to lung hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension and co-existent anomalies. This paper highlights recent progress in the perinatal management of CDH and addresses long term outcome issues for survivors indicating the need for multidisciplinary follow up.Paediatrics and Child Health 01/2008; 24(12-19):555-558. DOI:10.1016/j.paed.2009.09.016
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ABSTRACT: Available data comparing the management and outcome of right-sided (R-CDH) vs left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (L-CDH) are inconsistent. Large-volume CDH studies are limited by small numbers of R-CDH or are confounded by compilations from multiple institutions with multiple treatment strategies. Consequently, they are underpowered to draw conclusions. To define the behavior and outcomes of R-CDH better, we report the largest single-institution series of R-CDH and ask if factors traditionally linked to poor prognosis in L-CDH were applicable to R-CDH. We reviewed a single institution's experience with 267 consecutive evaluable neonates with unilateral CDH repaired from 1990 to 2006, with specific focus on R-CDH. chi(2) tests were performed for disease-related categorical variables. Two-tailed unpaired t tests were used for continuous variables. Factors associated with morbidity and survival were determined by univariate regression. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. Forty right-sided (15%) and 227 (85%) left-sided cases of CDH were identified. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 20 right-sided vs 170 left-sided defects (50% vs 75%, P < .01). Survival was 22 of 40 in R-CDH compared with 175 of 227 in L-CDH (55% vs 77%, P < .01). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required in 16 right-sided and 33 left-sided cases (40% vs 15%, P < .001). A diaphragmatic patch was used in 22 of 29 right-sided compared with 82 of 199 left-sided repairs (76% vs 41%, P < .01); rates of abdominal wall prosthesis were also higher in right-sided hernias (38% vs 19%, P < .05). No differences were detected in right-sided vs left-sided recurrences (14% vs 8%, P = .38), mean time from birth to operation (5.3 vs 4.8 days, P = .80), or presence of cardiac anomalies (15% vs 12%, P = .63). Morbidity persisting beyond 6 months of age was present in 16 of 22 R-CDH survivors compared with 76 of 175 L-CDH survivors (73% vs 43%, P > .05). Among R-CDHs, prenatal diagnosis was the only factor to predict survival by univariate regression (P < .01). Use of a prosthesis in the diaphragm (P < .05) for R-CDH repair correlated with morbidity. Although previous reports suggest that associated anomalies, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and time to repair can influence L-CDH survival, these data do not support extrapolation to R-CDH survival. Right-sided CDH carries a disproportionately high morbidity and mortality. Prenatal diagnosis was the only factor predictive of R-CDH survival. Morbidity may correlate with use of prosthetic material for R-CDH repair. Right-sided CDH is a unique disease that may require a modified antenatal consultation.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 02/2008; 43(2):373-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2007.10.049 · 1.31 Impact Factor