Right congenital diaphragmatic hernia: an 18-year experience
ABSTRACT Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of right congenital diaphragmatic hernia (RCDH) are far less well known than the more common left CDH (LCDH). In addition, onset of RCDH beyond the neonatal period with a spectrum of atypical symptoms is not unusual. A retrospective analysis of RCDH treated at a single center over 18 years has been reviewed with regard to outcome after the introduction of a new treatment protocol for CDH.
All charts of patients with CDH between 1987 and 2004 were reviewed. Twenty-nine patients with RCDH were identified. The patients were divided into 2 historical groups: group 1, from 1987 to 1998 (16 patients), and group 2, from 1999 to 2004 (13 patients). From 1999, at the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Padua, the management of a baby born with CDH has been standardized and includes planned delivery at term, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation since birth, inhaled nitric oxide if required, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a "last resort," and delayed repair once the infant is hemodynamically stable. Patients with either prenatal diagnosis of RCDH or early onset of symptoms (<6 hours of life) were considered "high risk," and those with late onset (>6 hours) were considered "low risk."
Of 29 patients, prenatal diagnosis was available in 8 (27.5%) and major associated malformations in 8 patients (27.5%). Eight (50%) of 16 cases from group 1 and 9 (69.2%) of 13 cases from group 2 were high-risk patients. There was a trend in favor of a higher survival among high-risk patients from group 2 (25% vs 44%), although this was not statistically significant. As expected, all low-risk patients survived (P = .0001). Plain thorax x-ray was diagnostic in 23 (82.1%) cases, initially normal in 3, not performed in 1, and misinterpreted as right lower lobe pneumonia in 2. At operation, the prosthetic patch was required in 2 (9%) of 22 cases and the peritoneal sac was found in 4 (13.7%).
(1) The rate of prenatal diagnosis of RCDH was low and remained stable throughout the examined period. (2) The introduction of a treatment protocol, using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation since birth, improved the survival of high-risk patients with RCDH, although the data did not reach statistical significance. (3) The majority (75%) of low-risk patients presented beyond the first week of life with a variety of aspecific gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms that accounted for initial misdiagnosis. (4) Even in these cases, the outcome was excellent.
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ABSTRACT: Right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (R-CDH) occurs in 14 to 25 % of all CDH cases. The current literature comparing the outcome of R-CDH vs left CDH (L-CDH) is inconsistent, with some studies reporting higher and others lower mortality in R-CDH compared to L-CDH. The aim of our multicentre study was to analyse characteristics and outcome of R-CDH. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 178 consecutive infants with CDH who underwent surgical repair of CDH at three European tertiary pediatric surgical centres from three different countries between 2000 and 2009. The analysis focused on demographic data, morbidity and mortality in R-CDH compared with L-CDH. Out of a total of 178 children, 32 (18.0 %) right-sided and 146 (82.0 %) left-sided cases of CDH were identified. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 8 R-CDH vs 67 L-CDH (25.0 vs 45.9 %, p = 0.030). Median gestational age in R-CDH was 39 weeks (range 29-42 weeks) and 39 weeks in L-CDH (range 28-43 weeks, p = 0.943). Median birth weight in R-CDH was 3233 g (range 905-4480 g) and in L-CDH was 3060 g (range 1065-5240 g, p = 0.184). Major associated anomalies were present in 19 R-CDH vs 46 L-CDH (59.4 vs 31.5 %, p = 0.003). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was required in 3 R-CDH vs 19 L-CDH (9.4 vs 13.0 %, p = 0.571). A diaphragmatic patch was used in 13 R-CDH and 59 L-CDH (40.6 vs 40.4 %, p = 0.982). Fundoplication for GERD was required in 1 R-CDH and 19 L-CDH (3.1 vs 13.0 %, p = 0.109). No significant differences were observed in recurrence rate (9.4 vs 8.9 %, p = 0.933). Postoperative mortality rate was significantly higher in R-CDH compared to L-CDH (21.9 vs 8.2 %, p = 0.023). In R-CDH, prenatal diagnosis and patch repair correlated with mortality by univariate regression (p = 0.005 and p = 0.019). This multicentre study shows that prenatal diagnosis and patch repair were associated with an increased mortality rate in R-CDH. However, the morbidity following repair of R-CDH was not significantly different from that in L-CDH in survivors.Pediatric Surgery International 03/2015; 31(5). DOI:10.1007/s00383-015-3695-y · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Significant advances in the postnatal management of patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have resulted in a remarkable improvement in survival rates over the past two decades. The success of current postnatal management of CDH patients has rendered fetal intervention to be limited to the most severe cases, and the role for prenatal treatment of CDH patients remains unclear. The adoption of lung-preserving strategies including high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have improved CDH outcomes especially in those patients with significant ventilatory or circulatory compromise. Survival rates of up to 90% are being reported in some high-volume centers. However, the increased survival in CDH patients has been accompanied by an increase in neurological, nutritional and musculoskeletal morbidity among the long-term survivors. This has resulted in the need to provide resources for the long-term follow-up and support of this patient population. In this article, the postnatal management strategies and primary and secondary outcomes of high-volume international pediatric surgical centers will be reviewed. Finally, the role of a multidisciplinary management team for the follow-up of long-term CDH survivors will be discussed.Prenatal Diagnosis 07/2008; 28(7):592-603. DOI:10.1002/pd.2007 · 2.51 Impact Factor
- European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 10/2012; 24(4). DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1324695 · 0.98 Impact Factor