Diagnostic value of salivary cortisol in children with abnormal adrenal cortex functions.
ABSTRACT It has been shown that the free cortisol level in saliva may reflect plasma free cortisol. The measurement of cortisol in saliva is a simple method, and as such it is important in the pediatric age group. In this research, the diagnostic value of measurement of salivary cortisol (SC) measurement was examined in adrenal insufficiency (AI).
Fifty-one patients, mean age 10.8 +/- 4.29, who were investigated for possible AI, were included. Basal cortisol levels were below 18 microg/dl. Adrenal function was determined by low-dose ACTH test. During the test, samples for SC were obtained simultaneously with serum samples (at 0-10-20-30-40 min).
Mean basal serum cortisol level was 8.21 +/- 4.10 microg/dl (mean +/- SD). Basal SC was correlated to basal serum cortisol (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). A cut-off of 0.94 microg/dl for SC differentiated adrenal insufficient subjects from normals with a sensitivity and specificity of 80 and 77%, respectively. A peak SC less than 0.62 microg/dl defined AI with a specificity of 100%; however, sensitivity was 44%.
Measurement of SC may be used in the evaluation of AI. It is well-correlated to serum cortisol. Peak SC in low-dose ACTH test can be used to differentiate patients with AI in the initial evaluation of individuals with suspected AI.
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ABSTRACT: The use of intra-articular (IA) glucocorticoids for reducing pain and inflammation in patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory arthropathies is widespread among primary care physicians, specialists, and non-specialists in the United States. Injectable glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties which can be effective in improving clinical parameters such as pain, range of motion, and quality of life. After injection into the IA space, glucocorticoids may be systemically absorbed; the degree of absorption can depend on the size of the joint injected, the injectable glucocorticoid preparation used, the dosage, and the frequency of the injection. The adverse effects of intra-articular glucocorticoid injections (IAGC) can often be overlooked by both the patient and physicians who administer them, in particular the potential deleterious effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis which can result in adrenal suppression and/or iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. In this paper we provide an overview on the often under-recognized effects of IAGC on HPA-axis function.Endocrine 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0409-5 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: There is evidence that Korean red ginseng (KRG) can reduce the production of the adrenal corticosteroids, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and thus may be a viable treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial tested the effect of KRG on children with ADHD symptoms. Methods: Subjects 6-15 years, who satisfied the inclusion criteria and had ADHD symptoms, were randomized into a KRG group (n=33) or a control group (n=37). The KRG group received one pouch of KRG (1g KRG extract/pouch) twice a day, and the control group received one pouch of placebo twice a day. At the 8 week point, the primary outcomes were the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for inattention and hyperactivity scale scores, which were measured at baseline and 8 weeks after starting treatment. Secondary outcomes were quantitative electroencephalography theta/beta ratio (QEEG TBR) (measured at baseline and week 8) and salivary cortisol and DHEA levels (measured at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks). Results: The baseline characteristics of the KRG and control groups were not statistically different. The mean ages of the KRG and control groups were 10.94±2.26 and 10.86±2.41, respectively. The KRG group had significantly decreased inattention/hyperactivity scores compared with the control group at week 8 (least squared means of the differences in inattention adjusted for baseline scores: -2.25 vs. -1.24, p=0.048; hyperactivity: -1.53 vs. -0.61, p=0.047). The KRG group had significantly decreased QEEG TBR compared with the control group (least squared means of the differences: -0.94 vs. -0.14, p=0.001). However, neither the KRG group nor the control group exhibited significant differences in salivary cortisol or DHEA levels at week 8 compared with the baseline levels. No serious adverse events were reported in either group. Conclusions: These results suggest that KRG extract may be an effective and safe alternative treatment for children with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Further studies to investigate the efficacy and safety of KRG are warranted.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 11/2014; 24(9). DOI:10.1089/cap.2014.0013 · 3.07 Impact Factor
Article: Intra-articular glucocorticoid injections and their effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function Philip C Johnston, M.Cecilia Lansang, Soumya Chatterjee,Laurence Kennedy Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, and Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195,Endocrine 08/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor