Diagnostic value of salivary cortisol in children with abnormal adrenal cortex functions.
ABSTRACT It has been shown that the free cortisol level in saliva may reflect plasma free cortisol. The measurement of cortisol in saliva is a simple method, and as such it is important in the pediatric age group. In this research, the diagnostic value of measurement of salivary cortisol (SC) measurement was examined in adrenal insufficiency (AI).
Fifty-one patients, mean age 10.8 +/- 4.29, who were investigated for possible AI, were included. Basal cortisol levels were below 18 microg/dl. Adrenal function was determined by low-dose ACTH test. During the test, samples for SC were obtained simultaneously with serum samples (at 0-10-20-30-40 min).
Mean basal serum cortisol level was 8.21 +/- 4.10 microg/dl (mean +/- SD). Basal SC was correlated to basal serum cortisol (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). A cut-off of 0.94 microg/dl for SC differentiated adrenal insufficient subjects from normals with a sensitivity and specificity of 80 and 77%, respectively. A peak SC less than 0.62 microg/dl defined AI with a specificity of 100%; however, sensitivity was 44%.
Measurement of SC may be used in the evaluation of AI. It is well-correlated to serum cortisol. Peak SC in low-dose ACTH test can be used to differentiate patients with AI in the initial evaluation of individuals with suspected AI.
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ABSTRACT: Bone health, characterized by its mass, density, and micro-architectural qualities, is maintained by a balanced system of remodeling. The lack of these qualities, caused by an uncoupling of the remodeling process, leads to bone fragility and an increased risk for fracture. The prime regulator of bone remodeling is the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. The common origin of both bone and immune stem cells is the key to understanding this system and its relationship to the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB in bone loss and inflammation. Via this coupled osteo-immune relationship, a catabolic environment from heightened proinflammatory cytokine expression and/or a chronic antigen-induced activation of the immune system can initiate a switch-like diversion of osteoprogenitor-cell differentiation away from monocyte-macrophage and osteoblast cell formation and toward osteoclast and adipocyte formation. This disruption in bone homeostasis leads to increased fragility. Dietary and specific nutrient interventions can reduce inflammation and limit this diversion. Common laboratory biomarkers can be used to assess changes in body metabolism that affect bone health. This literature review offers practical information for applying effective strategic nutrition to fracture-risk individuals while monitoring metabolic change through serial testing of biomarkers. As examples, the clinician may recommend vitamin K and potassium to reduce hypercalciuria, _-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine to reduce the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide (N-Tx), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), whey, and milk basic protein (the basic protein fraction of whey) to increase insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and create a more anabolic profile.Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic 07/2007; 12(2):113-45. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined the responsiveness of both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) to the stress of survival training in military men and evaluated relationships to performance, peritraumatic dissociation, and the subsequent impact of stressful events. Baseline salivary cortisol samples were self-collected by 19 men at 0900 and 1930 in a free-living (FL) environment. DHEAS samples were also collected in a subset of this sample (N = 12). Samples were subsequently taken at similar time points during a stressful captivity (SC) phase of training. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with follow-up paired t-tests examined differences across time and conditions. Significant increases were observed at both time points (0900 and 1930) from FL to SC in both cortisol (0900: 9.2 +/- 3.4 nmol x L(-1) vs. 18.4 +/- 10.5 nmol x L(-1); 1930: 3.5 +/- 3.0 nmol x L(-1) vs. 27.7 +/- 10.9 nmol x L(-1)) and DHEAS (0900: 1.7 +/- 1.3 ng x ml(-1) vs.6.7 +/- 3.5 ngx ml(-1); 1930: 1.5 0.84 ng x ml(-1) vs. 4.5 +/- 3.0 ng x ml(-1)). Also, overall performance during a high-intensity captivity-related challenge was inversely related to the DHEAS-cortisol ratio; conversely, overall performance during a low-intensity captivity-related challenge was positively related to DHEAS at the 0900 time point during SC. Dissociation was unrelated to endocrine indices measured during SC, while total impact of events was inversely related to percent change in DHEAS from FL to SC. Cortisol and DHEAS increase in response to allostatic load, and may relate to human performance during SC as well as PTSD symptoms.Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2008; 78(12):1143-9. DOI:10.3357/ASEM.2151.2007 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 250 microg adrenocorticotropin test (high-dose test) is the most commonly used adrenal stimulation test, though the use of physiologic doses (1.0 microg or 0.5 microg/1.73 m) (low-dose test) has recently gained wider acceptance. These variants and the use of adrenocorticotropin test in the ICU, however, remain controversial. The validity of the low-dose test and the parameters for evaluation of high- and low-dose tests in different situations need reevaluation. In the last few years, numerous studies have used the low-dose test as a single test following previous findings that it is more sensitive and accurate than the high-dose test. It is used mainly in secondary adrenal insufficiency and after treatment with therapeutic glucocorticosteroids to define hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal suppression. Unless there is a very recent onset of disease, the results are interpreted by most researchers as diagnostic. The treatment of relative adrenal insufficiency, based on delta cortisol, has not yielded proof of correlation between this diagnosis and better prognosis with glucocorticoid treatment. For interpretation of an adrenocorticotropin test, only peak - and not delta - cortisol should be used. The use of 240-300 mg of hydrocortisone daily in ICU patients, including septic shock, should be considered as pharmacologic, rather than as a replacement dose. Using the low-dose test for this purpose will lead to further misdiagnosis.Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 07/2008; 15(3):244-9. DOI:10.1097/MED.0b013e3282fdf16d · 3.77 Impact Factor