Cutting Edge: Antibody-mediated TLR7-dependent recognition of viral RNA.
ABSTRACT TLR7 recognizes the genome of ssRNA viruses such as Coxsackievirus B. Because TLR7 is expressed in intracellular compartments, viral RNA must be internalized before its recognition by TLR7. In this study, we define plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) as peripheral blood mononuclear immune cells that respond to Coxsackievirus. pDC activation by Coxsackievirus B requires the presence of specific antiviral Abs. We show that Fc receptors mediate the recognition of virus-Ab complexes and that TLR7 is required for human and murine pDC production of cytokines. These data define a pathway by which intracellular TLR7 senses viral RNA and indicate a role for TLRs in association with Abs in sustaining virus-specific responses.
- SourceAvailable from: Yaming Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type I interferon (IFN-I) promotes antiviral CD8(+)T cell responses, but the contribution of different IFN-I sources and signaling pathways are ill defined. While plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce IFN-I upon TLR stimulation, IFN-I is induced in most cells by helicases like MDA5. Using acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection models, we determined that pDCs transiently produce IFN-I that minimally impacts CD8(+)T cell responses and viral persistence. Rather, MDA5 is the key sensor that induces IFN-I required for CD8(+)T cell responses. In the absence of MDA5, CD8(+)T cell responses to acute infection rely on CD4(+)T cell help, and loss of both CD4(+)T cells and MDA5 results in CD8(+)T cell exhaustion and persistent infection. Chronic LCMV infection rapidly attenuates IFN-I responses, but early administration of exogenous IFN-I rescues CD8(+)T cells, promoting viral clearance. Thus, effective antiviral CD8(+)T cell responses depend on the timing and magnitude of IFN-I production.Cell host & microbe 06/2012; 11(6):631-42. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2012.05.003 · 12.19 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) mediate type I interferon (IFN-I) responses to viruses that are recognized through the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) or TLR9 signaling pathway. However, it is unclear how pDCs regulate the antiviral responses via innate and adaptive immune cells. We generated diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice to selectively deplete pDCs by administration of diphtheria toxin. pDC-depleted mice were challenged with viruses known to activate pDCs. In murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, pDC depletion reduced early IFN-I production and augmented viral burden facilitating the expansion of natural killer (NK) cells expressing the MCMV-specific receptor Ly49H. During vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, pDC depletion enhanced early viral replication and impaired the survival and accumulation of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We conclude that pDCs mediate early antiviral IFN-I responses and influence the accrual of virus-specific NK or CD8(+) T cells in a virus-dependent manner.Immunity 12/2010; 33(6):955-66. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2010.11.020 · 19.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recombinant viral vectors such as adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus have been used widely as vehicles for gene therapy applications because of the high efficiency with which they transfer genes into a wide spectrum of cells in vivo. However, enthusiasm for the use of viral vectors in gene therapy has been tempered by significant problems of attendant host cellular and humoral immune responses that limit their safety and efficacy in vivo. Advances in immunology have suggested a crucial role for the innate immune system in the induction of immune responses to viruses. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the host's innate immune system recognizes viruses and viral vectors will help in the design of effective strategies to improve the outcome of viral vector-mediated gene therapy. In this review we first discuss our current understanding of innate immune recognition of viruses in general, and then focus on the innate immune responses to viral vectors for gene therapy.Human gene therapy 05/2009; 20(4):293-301. DOI:10.1089/hum.2008.141 · 3.62 Impact Factor