Article

The psychological implications of concealing a stigma: a cognitive-affective-behavioral model.

Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.39). 04/2007; 133(2):328-45. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.2.328
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many assume that individuals with a hidden stigma escape the difficulties faced by individuals with a visible stigma. However, recent research has shown that individuals with a concealable stigma also face considerable stressors and psychological challenges. The ambiguity of social situations combined with the threat of potential discovery makes possessing a concealable stigma a difficult predicament for many individuals. The increasing amount of research on concealable stigmas necessitates a cohesive model for integrating relevant findings. This article offers a cognitive-affective-behavioral process model for understanding the psychological implications of concealing a stigma. It ends with discussion of potential points of intervention in the model as well as potential future routes for investigation of the model.

Full-text

Available from: John Pachankis, Mar 01, 2014
5 Followers
 · 
227 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors.
    11/2011; 34(4):391-400.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In light of the prevalent experience, theoretical importance, and underexamination of the intersection of pregnancy and work, the current study explores how pregnant employees manage their concealable stigmatized identities at work over the course of pregnancy. Using a weekly survey methodology, we were able to examine within-person changes in identity management and physical health. Results suggested a reciprocal relationship between revealing and physical health wherein revealing led to more frequent physical health symptoms and more frequent physical health symptoms led to decreased revealing. Furthermore, concealing exerted a unidi-rectional impact on physical health wherein concealing predicted subsequent decreases in physical health symptoms. Finally, supportive work–family cultures and supervisor support were linked to lower concealing, higher revealing, and less frequent physical health symptoms at the initial measurement occasion (i.e., earlier stages of pregnancy); however, these benefits appeared to diminish over time. The implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.
    Journal of Management 12/2015; DOI:10.1177/0149206313503012 · 6.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10508-015-0515-3 · 3.53 Impact Factor