Association between psychomotor activity delirium subtypes and mortality among newly admitted post-acute facility patients.

Hebrew SeniorLife, Institute for Aging Research, Boston, MA 02131, USA.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.98). 03/2007; 62(2):174-9. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/62.2.174
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Delirium is common among hospitalized elders and may persist for months. Therefore, the adverse impact of delirium on independence often occurs in the post acute care (PAC) setting. The effect of psychomotor subtypes on delirium remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between psychomotor activity delirium subtypes and 1-year mortality among 457 newly admitted delirious PAC patients.
Patients were screened for delirium on admission to PAC facilities after an acute hospitalization, and patients with "Confusion Assessment Method"-defined delirium were enrolled. Psychomotor activity was assessed using the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, and patients were classified as to their delirium subtype (hyperactive, hypoactive, mixed, or normal). One-year mortality data were obtained from the National Death Index. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional hazards analysis using indicator (dummy) variables with normal psychomotor activity as the referent were performed.
The normal psychomotor activity group had the lowest 1-year mortality rate, followed by the hyperactive, mixed, then hypoactive groups in increasing order. Independent of age, gender, comorbidity, dementia, and delirium severity, hypoactive patients were 1.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.35) times more likely to die during the 1-year follow-up period than were patients with normal psychomotor activity. The hyperactive (hazard ratio = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.73-2.31) and mixed (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% CI, 0.72-2.17) psychomotor groups had nonsignificant elevated risks relative to the normal psychomotor behavior group.
All three psychomotor disturbance subtypes had an elevated risk of dying during the 1-year follow-up relative to the normal psychomotor group, though the hypoactive group had the highest mortality risk and was the only group with a statistically significantly elevated risk relative to the normal group.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Delirium is a frequent and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome with core features of inattention and global cognitive dysfunction. Delirium can be considered a hospital care complication which might be prevented. Objectives: To determine the incidence and epidemiological profile of delirium in a teaching hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Method: A transversal section descriptive prospective study was carried out. Patients over 18 years of age were assessed to determine the presence of delirium and related clinical and sociodemographic features. Results: 421 patients were studied of whom 29 met the diagnostic criteria for delirium according to CAM, and the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR. The delirium incidence proportion was 6.9%. 62.1% of patients with delirium were male and the average age was 64 years. Motor subtypes were mixed, hyperactive, hypoactive, and 6.9% had no motor disturbance. In 86.2% of the patients delirium was due to multiple etiologies. The average days of hospitalization were 37 days. Delirium was identified by treating pysicians in 75.9% of the patients. Of these, 59% improved and 13.8% died during hospitalization. Conclusion: Delirium is a frequent clinical condition in the general hospital associated with an extended stay at the hospital and high mortality.
    09/2009; 38(3):471-487.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Assessment of delirium is performed with a variety of instruments, making comparisons between studies difficult. A conversion rule between commonly used instruments would aid such comparisons. The present study aimed to compare the revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98) and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) in a palliative care population and derive conversion rules between the two scales. Method: Both instruments were employed to assess 77 consecutive patients with DSM-IV delirium, and the measures were repeated at three-day intervals. Conversion rules were derived from the data at initial assessment and tested on subsequent data. Results: There was substantial overall agreement between the two scales [concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) = 0.70 (CI 95 = 0.60-0.78)] and between most common items (weighted κ ranging from 0.63 to 0.86). Although the two scales overlap considerably, there were some subtle differences with only modest agreement between the attention (weighted κ = 0.42) and thought process (weighted κ = 0.61) items. The conversion rule from total MDAS score to DRS-R98 severity scores demonstrated an almost perfect level of agreement (r = 0.86, CCC = 0.86; CI 95 = 0.79-0.91), similar to the conversion rule from DRS-R98 to MDAS. Significance of results: Overall, the derived conversion rules demonstrated promising accuracy in this palliative care population, but further testing in other populations is certainly needed.
    Palliative and Supportive Care 07/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1478951514000613 · 0.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective:To evaluate the predictors of delay in psychiatry referral for patients with delirium.Materials and Methods:The consultation liaison psychiatry registry and case notes of 461 patients referred to psychiatry consultation liaison services and diagnosed as having delirium were reviewed. Data pertaining to sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 98 version, etiologies associated with delirium were extracted.Results:Older age, presence of and higher severity of sleep disturbance, presence of and higher severity of motor retardation, presence of visuospatial disturbances, presence of fluctuation of symptoms, being admitted to medical ward/medical intensive care units, and absence of comorbid axis-1 psychiatry diagnoses were associated with longer duration of psychiatric referral after the onset of delirium. Of these only four variables (presence of sleep disturbance, presence of motor retardation, being admitted to medical ward intensive care units and absence of comorbid axis-1 psychiatry diagnoses) were associated with longer duration of psychiatric referral in the regression analysis.Conclusion:The variables associated with delay in psychiatry referral for delirium suggest that there is a need to improve the understanding of the physicians and surgeons about the signs and symptoms, risk factors, and prognostic factors of delirium.
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry 04/2014; 56(2):171-5. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.130501
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format