Prescription drug abuse and diversion among adolescents in a southeast Michigan school district
ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence of medical use of 4 classes of prescription medications relative to nonmedical use (illicit use), to examine the relative rates among the 4 drug classes, and to assess whether gender differences exist in the trading, selling, loaning, or giving away of medications.
A Web-based survey was administered to 7th- to 12th-grade students residing in 1 ethnically diverse school district; a 68% response rate was achieved.
During a 3-week period in May 2005, teachers brought students to their schools' computing center where students took the survey using a unique personal identification number to sign on to the survey.
There were 1086 secondary students, including 586 girls, 498 boys, 484 black students, and 565 white students.
Students were asked about their medical and nonmedical use of sleeping, sedative or anxiety, stimulant, and pain medications. Diversion of prescription medication was assessed by determining who asked the student to divert his or her prescription and who received it.
Thirty-six percent of students reported having a recent prescription for 1 of the 4 drug classes. A higher percentage of girls reported giving away their medications than boys (27.5% vs 17.4%, respectively; chi(2)(1) = 6.7; P = .01); girls were significantly more likely than boys to divert to female friends (64.0% vs 21.2%, respectively; chi(2)(1) = 17.5; P<.001) whereas boys were more likely than girls to divert to male friends (45.5% vs 25.6%, respectively; chi(2)(1) = 4.4; P = .04). Ten percent diverted their drugs to parents.
Physicians should discuss the proper use of prescription medications with their patients and their patients' families.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the risk factors associated with adolescent (ages 12-17) misuse of opioids, stimulants, tranquilizers, and sedatives using a nationally representative sample. The characteristics associated with symptoms of abuse and/or dependence related to prescription medication misuse among adolescents were also analyzed. Method: These questions were addressed using the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Screening and full interview response rates were 91% and 76%, respectively, and data from 18,678 adolescents were used. Regression analyses, using population-based weights, were performed to identify characteristics associated with past year misuse of prescription medications and the presence of past year abuse or dependence symptoms related to misuse. Results: Among adolescents, 8.2% misused a medication and 3.0% endorsed symptoms of a substance use disorder related to prescription medication misuse in the past year. The predictors of misuse from multivariate analyses were poorer academic performance (odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.37-3.52), past year major depression (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.62-3.74), higher risk-taking levels (OR 3.6, 95% CI 3.13-4.20), past year use of alcohol (OR 7.3, 95% CI 6.19-8.59), cigarettes (OR 8.6, 95% CI 7.43-9.91), marijuana (OR 9.9, 95% CI 8.53-11.44), or past year use of cocaine or an inhalant (OR 10.7, 95% CI 8.98-12.72). Past year major depression (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.03-2.25), past year cocaine or inhalant use (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.21-2.41), or >= 10 episodes of past year prescription misuse (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.13-4.17) was associated with having symptoms of abuse of or dependence among adolescent prescription medication misusers. Conclusions: These risk factors could help clinicians identity those at risk for significant problems due to prescription misuse, allowing for prevention or early treatment in this population.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 07/2008; 47(7):745-754. DOI:10.1097/CHI.0b013e318172ef0d · 6.35 Impact Factor
01/2013; 16(6):789-804. DOI:10.1080/17430437.2012.753529
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ABSTRACT: Background The practice of medication sharing, the lending (giving) or borrowing (taking) of prescription medicines, has been reported increasingly in the literature. Aim This study aimed to investigate prescription medication sharing practices among adults in Auckland, New Zealand. Setting Community pharmacies in Auckland. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted in ten community pharmacies in Auckland during March, 2012. Clients were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire to assess their medication sharing practices. Main outcome measures Proportion of respondents reporting lending or borrowing; information provided or received. Results Of all participants (N = 642), 25.5 % reported borrowing, and 24.1 % reported lending prescribed medicines in the past year. Furthermore, 14.8 % of participants reported ever giving a child's prescribed medicine to another child in their care, and 49.8 % reported having leftover prescription medicines at home. Of those who borrowed medicines (n = 164), 56.1 % received written medication instructions from the lender, and of the lenders (n = 155), 47.1 % provided verbal instructions with the lent medicines. Conclusion The sharing of prescription medicines in Auckland appears to be similar to that reported in other developed countries, and it is now clear that information provision while sharing does not always occur. Approaches to reduce harm resulting from sharing medicines should be explored.International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 11/2014; 36(6). DOI:10.1007/s11096-014-0031-x · 1.25 Impact Factor