Silent brain infarction and platelet activation in obstructive sleep apnea.
ABSTRACT Silent brain infarction (SBI) and increased levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) are associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SBI and serum levels of sCD40L and sP-selectin are increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
SBI was studied by brain magnetic resonance images in 50 male patients with OSA and 15 obese male control subjects who were free of comorbidities. In addition, the effects of 3 months of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on serum parameters were studied in 24 patients with moderate to severe OSA.
The percentage of SBI in patients with moderate to severe OSA (25.0%) was higher than that of obese control subjects (6.7%) or patients with mild OSA (7.7%). Serum levels of sCD40L and sP-selectin were significantly higher in patients with moderate to severe OSA than in obese control subjects (p < 0.05) or patients with mild OSA (p < 0.05). In addition, nCPAP significantly decreased serum levels of sCD40L (p < 0.03) and sP-selectin (p < 0.01) in patients with moderate to severe OSA.
These results suggest that serum levels of sCD40L and sP-selectin are elevated and SBI is more common in patients with moderate to severe OSA, leading to elevated cerebrovascular morbidity. Moreover, nCPAP may be useful for decreasing risk in patients with moderate to severe OSA.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Insulin-dependent patients are individuals with chronic disease who are well adapted to living and dealing with any health needs and fears arising. An important aspect in the process of adaptation to chronic illness is the provision of nursing care in the early stages of the disease, because this contributes to its acceptance and the early identification and management of potential complications. Purpose: To investigate the health needs and self-management problems faced by patients with diabetes daily, especially those who use insulin. Furthermore purpose of this study was to investigate the fears experienced by patients in the early stage of the disease, but also in its subsequent development and to study possible differences between sexes. Methodology: This is a qualitative study, using interpretative phenomenological approach. Fifteen (nine women and six men) insulin-dependent patients, recounted their personal fears and their needs, through semi-structured interviews, which took place in Central Greece. The method used for processing the results is the Mayering one. Results: The analysis of the narratives showed that patients have a variety of fears and needs associated with the diagnosis, treatment, expected consequences, prognosis and everyday life in the management of the disease. Most patients express the concept of need as desire. Care needs, psychological support and education to recognize and prevent hypoglycemia. Conclusions: Insulin-dependent patients express fears and needs in their daily lives. Nurses providing care aimed at enhancing the level of health, while putting self-care information and training them. Patients want the nurse next to them, so that information is continuous and permanent.Medical Archives 06/2015; 69(3):190-195. DOI:10.5455/medarh.2015.69.190-195
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS), the commonly used term for the clustering of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, affects millions of people worldwide, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an increasingly prevalent condition, may contribute to the development of MS and diabetes. Despite substantial evidence from both clinical and population studies to suggest an independent link between OSA and metabolic abnormalities, the issue still remains controversial. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is an important factor in the assessment of adverse metabolic outcome in OSA. Further prospective and interventional studies, with adequate sample sizes and longer follow-up, rigorous control for adiposity, and, ideally, randomization and control for any therapeutic intervention, are clearly needed to address the direction of causality. There are multiple mechanistic pathways involved in the interaction between OSA, obesity, and metabolic derangements. Chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation with sleep loss in OSA are likely key triggers that initiate or contribute to the sustenance of inflammation as a prominent phenomenon, but their complex interplay remains to be elucidated. In summary, OSA may represent a novel risk factor for MS and diabetes, and thus clinicians should be encouraged to systematically evaluate the presence of metabolic abnormalities in OSA and vice versa.Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 03/2008; 5(2):207-17. DOI:10.1513/pats.200708-139MG
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ABSTRACT: The present review attempts to put together the available evidence and potential research paradigms at the interface of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleep micro- and macrostructure, cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive neuroscience. Besides the significant health-related consequences of OSAS including hypertension, increased risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events, notable neurocognitive lapses and excessive daytime somnolence are considered as potential burdens. The intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and hypercapnia which occur in OSAS are known to affect cerebral circulation and result in brain hypoperfusion. Arousal instability is then resulted from altered cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) reflected in sleep EEG. In chronic state, some pathological loss of gray matter may be resulted from obstructive sleep apnea. This is proposed to be related to an upregulated proinflammatory state which may potentially result in apoptotic cell loss in the brain. On this basis, a pragmatic framework of the possible neural mechanisms which underpin obstructive sleep apnea-related neurcognitive decline has been discussed in this review. In addition, the impact of OSAS on cerebral autoregulation and sleep microstructure has been articulated.Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1142/S0219635215500144 · 1.12 Impact Factor