Immunogenicity of influenza vaccination in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess humoral response to influenza vaccine in patients (pts) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) as compared to healthy subjects (ctrl).
In two epidemic seasons, 2003/2004 and 2004/2005, 163 pts and 92 ctrl were vaccinated. Antibody titers to hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) were measured in serum samples collected before vaccination, and 1 and 6 months apart. Changes in antibody titers were assessed by comparing geometric mean titers (GMT), mean fold increases (MFI), and seroprotection and seroresponse rates to baseline values.
Pts vaccinated in 2003/2004 had, after 1 month, increase in GMT by a factor of 8.64-26.60 for antihemagglutinin antibodies (HI) and 6.93-12.66 for antineuraminidase antibodies (NI), as compared to factor of 9.12-24.41 for HI and 4.83-10.31 for NI in ctrl. At 1 month after vaccination, seroprotection and seroresponse rates were similar in both groups, ranging from 68.42 to 84.21% and 71.93 to 94.74% in NHL, and 66.67-82.22% and 62.22-86.67% in ctrl, respectively. Pts vaccinated in 2004/2005 had increase in the GMT by a factor of 38.76-41.49 for HI and 26.59-30.31 for NI, as compared to factor of 81.19-104.32 for HI and 52.16-54.52 for NI in ctrl. Seroprotection and seroresponse rates were lower in the former group, ranging from 62.11 to 65.26% and 74.47 to 77.66%, respectively. In both seasons, pts achieved titres of antibodies greater than the protective threshold, irrespective of the previous chemotherapy administration.
The results indicate that influenza vaccination induces sufficient immune response in pts with NHL, irrespective of previous chemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: An international panel of experts prepared an evidenced-based guideline for vaccination of immunocompromised adults and children. These guidelines are intended for use by primary care and subspecialty providers who care for immunocompromised patients. Evidence was often limited. Areas that warrant future investigation are highlighted.Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 58(3):309-18. · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressed cancer patients are at increased risk of serious influenza-related complications. Guidelines, therefore, recommend influenza vaccination for these patients. However, data on vaccine effectiveness in this population is lacking, and the value of vaccination in this population remains unclear. To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in immunosuppressed adults with malignancies. The primary review outcome is all-cause mortality, preferably at the end of the influenza season. Influenza-like illness (ILI, a clinical definition), confirmed influenza, pneumonia, any hospitalization and influenza-related mortality were defined as secondary outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases up to August 2013. We searched the following conference proceedings: ICAAC, ECCMID, IDSA (infectious disease conferences), ASH, ASBMT, EBMT (hematological), and ASCO (oncological) between the years 2006 to 2010. In addition, we scanned the references of all identified studies and pertinent reviews. We searched the websites of the manufacturers of influenza vaccine. Finally, we searched for ongoing or unpublished trials in clinical trial registry databases using the website. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case-control studies were considered, comparing inactivated influenza vaccines versus placebo, no vaccination or a different vaccine, in adults (16 years and over) with cancer. We considered solid malignancies treated with chemotherapy, haematological cancer patients treated or not treated with chemotherapy, cancer patients post-autologous (up to six months after transplantation) or allogeneic (at any time) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from included studies adhering to Cochrane methodology. Meta-analysis could not be performed because of different outcome and denominator definitions in the included studies. We identified four studies: one RCT and three observational studies, including 2124 participants. One study reported results in person-years while the other three reported per person. The studies were performed between 1993 and 2012 and included adults with haematological diseases (two studies), patients following bone marrow transplantation (one study) and solid malignancies (three studies). Only two observational studies reported all-cause mortality; one showing an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.99) for death with vaccination and the other reporting an odds ratio (OR) of 0.43 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.71). The RCT reported a statistically significant reduction in ILI with vaccination, while no difference was observed in one observational study. Confirmed influenza rates were lower with vaccination in the three observational studies, the difference reaching statistical significance in one. Pneumonia was observed significantly less frequently with vaccination in one observational study, but no difference was detected in another or in the RCT. The RCT showed a reduction in hospitalizations following vaccination, while an observational study found no difference. No life-threatening or persistent adverse effects from vaccination were reported. The strength of evidence is limited by the low number of included studies and by their low methodological quality (high risk of bias). Observational data suggests a lower mortality with influenza vaccination. Infection-related outcomes were lower or similar with influenza vaccination. The strength of evidence is limited by the small number of studies and by the fact that only one was a RCT. Influenza vaccination is safe and the evidence, although weak, is in favour of vaccinating adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 10/2013; 10:CD008983. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Influenza virus causes annual epidemics in the winter-spring season with significant morbidity in the general population and important mortality in high-risk groups, including cancer patients. Opinions on the suitability of patients with malignancies not undergoing active treatment and in different phases of antineoplastic therapy, to receive influenza vaccination vary considerably among oncologists, sometimes even within one center. We reviewed available data, including recommendations by national health authorities, on impact of influenza in patients with cancer and their capacity to mount protective immunological responses to vaccination, thus allowing, on behalf of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM), to make suitable recommendations for the prevention and treatment of seasonal influenza. Patients with cancer often have disease- or treatment-related immunosuppression, and as a consequence they may have a suboptimal serologic response to influenza vaccination. The protective effect of the different preparations of influenza vaccines in patients with cancer has not been widely investigated, especially in adult patients harbouring solid tumors. The optimal timing for administration of influenza vaccines in patients receiving chemotherapy is also not clearly defined. However, since vaccination is the most effective method, along with antiviral drugs in selected patients, for preventing influenza infection, it has to be recommended for cancer patients. Implementing vaccination of close contacts of oncology patients would be an additional tool for enhancing protection in fragile patient populations.Annals of Oncology 03/2014; · 6.58 Impact Factor