Article

Depression and anxiety, an indicated prevention (DIP) protocol in homes for the elderly: feasibility and (cost) effectiveness of a stepped care programme.

Department of General Practice, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. .
BMC Geriatrics (Impact Factor: 2.34). 02/2007; 7:6. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-7-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Depressive and anxiety disorders are a very common, serious and underdetected problem in homes for the elderly. Elderly persons in residential homes are at high risk for developing major depressive and anxiety disorders, and, therefore, deserve attention with regard to prevention.
This protocol describes a randomised trial on the feasibility and (cost) effectiveness of a stepped-care programme for prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders in homes for the elderly. The main outcome measure is the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorder in one year with a two years follow up. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, direct health care costs and satisfaction with treatment.
The number of studies examining the effects of preventive interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in the elderly population is very small. However, indicated prevention by means of a stepped-care programme seems to be an important option for decreasing the burden of illness for residents and their caregivers. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in this field. Positive effects may contribute to further use and development of tailored, (cost-) effective and easy to use interventions in a preventive stepped-care programme.

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    ABSTRACT: Depression is common in young people, has a marked negative impact and is associated with self-harm and suicide. Preventing its onset would be an important advance in public health. To determine whether psychological or educational interventions, or both, are effective in preventing the onset of depressive disorder in children and adolescents. The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's trials registers (CCDANCTR) were searched at the editorial base in July 2010. Update searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and ERIC were conducted by the authors in September 2009. Conference abstracts, reference lists of included studies and reviews were searched and experts in the field contacted. Randomised controlled trials of psychological or educational prevention programmes, or both, compared with placebo, any comparison intervention, or no intervention for young people aged 5 to 19 years-old, who did not currently meet diagnostic criteria for depression or who were below the clinical range on standardised, validated, and reliable rating scales of depression, or both, were included. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and rated their quality. Sample sizes were adjusted to take account of cluster designs and multiple comparisons. We contacted study authors for additional information where needed. Fifty-three studies including 14,406 participants were included in the analysis. There were only six studies with clear allocation concealment, participants and assessors were mostly not blind to the intervention or blinding was unclear so that the overall risk of bias was moderately high. Sixteen studies including 3240 participants reported outcomes on depressive diagnosis. The risk of having a depressive disorder post-intervention was reduced immediately compared with no intervention (15 studies; 3115 participants risk difference (RD) -0.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.14 to -0.05; P<0.0003), at three to nine months (14 studies; 1842 participants; RD -0.11; 95% CI -0.16 to -0.06) and at 12 months (10 studies; 1750 participants; RD -0.06; 95% CI -0.11 to -0.01). There was no evidence for continued efficacy at 24 months (eight studies; 2084 participant; RD -0.01; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.03) but limited evidence of efficacy at 36 months (two studies; 464 participants; RD -0.10; 95% CI -0.19 to -0.02). There was significant heterogeneity in all these findings. There was no evidence of efficacy in the few studies that compared intervention with placebo or attention controls. There is some evidence from this review that targeted and universal depression prevention programmes may prevent the onset of depressive disorders compared with no intervention. However, allocation concealment is unclear in most studies, and there is heterogeneity in the findings. The persistence of findings suggests that this is real and not a placebo effect.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2011; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Š Dozeman E, Van Marwijk HWJ, Van Schaik DJF, Smit F, Stek ML, Van der Horst HE, Bohlmeijer ET, Beekman ATF. Preventie van depressie en angst in verzorgingshuizen. Huisarts Wet 2013;56(4):154-8. Achtergrond Bewoners van verzorgingshuizen vormen een risicogroep voor het ontwikkelen van een depressieve en/of angststoornis. Deze stoornissen komen veel voor en hebben een grote impact op het welzijn en functioneren van de betrokkene, maar worden vaak slecht herkend. Wij vroegen ons af of een stepped-care programma ter preventie van depressieve en angststoornissen in verzorgingshuizen haalbaar en effectief zou kunnen zijn. Methoden In een pragmatische gerandomiseerde gecontroleerde trial vergeleken we de effecten van het programma met gebruikelijke zorg in veertien verzorgingshuizen. In totaal deden 185 bewoners mee, die op de Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) minstens 8 punten scoorden, niet leden aan een depressieve of angststoornis en ook niet aan een ernstige cognitieve stoornis. De deelnemers kregen een stepped-care preventieprogramma (n = 93) of gebruikelijke behandeling (n = 92). De deelnemers aan het preventieprogramma kregen eerst een afwachtend beleid en als ze niet opknapten achtereenvolgens een zelfhulpinterventie, een psychologische life-review en een verwijzing naar de huisarts. Onze primaire uitkomstmaat was de incidentie van een depressieve stoornis of angststoornis gedurende het jaar na inclusie. Resultaten De incidentie van depressie en angst samen nam niet af door de interventie: de gecombineerde incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0,50 (95%-betrouwbaarheidsinterval (BI) 0,23 tot 1,12). Ten opzichte van de gebruikelijke zorg bracht het preventieprogramma wel het indicentierisico voor depressie omlaag (IRR 0,26; 95%-BI 0,12 tot 0,80) maar niet dat voor angst (IRR 1,32; 95%-BI 0,48 tot 3,62). Conclusie De resultaten suggereren dat het toegepaste steppedcare preventieprogramma bij ouderen in verzorgingshuizen wel helpt tegen depressie, maar niet tegen angst.
    Huisarts en wetenschap 56(4).
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