The Human Kinesin Kif18A Is a Motile Microtubule Depolymerase Essential for Chromosome Congression
ABSTRACT The accurate alignment of chromosomes at the spindle equator is fundamental for the equal distribution of the genome in mitosis and thus for the genetic integrity of eukaryotes. Although it is well established that chromosome movements are coupled to microtubule dynamics, the underlying mechanism is not well understood.
By combining RNAi-depletion experiments with in vitro biochemical assays, we demonstrate that the human kinesin Kif18A is a motile microtubule depolymerase essential for chromosome congression in mammalian tissue culture cells. We show that in vitro Kif18A is a slow plus-end-directed kinesin that possesses microtubule depolymerizing activity. Notably, Kif18A like its yeast ortholog Kip3p depolymerizes longer microtubules more quickly than shorter ones. In vivo, Kif18A accumulates in mitosis where it localizes close to the plus ends of kinetochore microtubules. The depletion of Kif18A induces aberrantly long mitotic spindles and loss of tension across sister kinetochores, resulting in the activation of the Mad2-dependent spindle-assembly checkpoint. Live-cell microscopy studies revealed that in Kif18A-depleted cells, chromosomes move at reduced speed and completely fail to align at the spindle equator.
These studies identify Kif18A as a dual-functional kinesin and a key component of chromosome congression in mammalian cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Joanna Przybyl[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Synovial sarcoma (SynSa) is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor, comprising approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Over half of SynSa patients develop metastasis or local recurrence, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the aggressive clinical behavior remain poorly characterized. Materials and methods: Sixty-four frozen tumor specimens from 54 SynSa patients were subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression profiling. The examined set of tumor specimens included 16 primary tumors from untreated patients who did not develop metastasis/local recurrence (SynSa1 group), 26 primary tumors from untreated patients who developed metastases or local recurrence during follow-up (SynSa2 group), and 22 metachronous metastatic/recurrent SynSa tumors (SynSa3 group). Results: AURKA and KIF18A, which play important roles in various mitotic events, were the two most up-regulated genes in SynSa2 and SynSa3 groups compared to the SynSa1 group. Expression profiles of SynSa2 and SynSa3 tumors did not show any significant differences. Analysis of genomic index (GI) based on aCGH profiles demonstrated that the SynSa1 group consisted of tumors with significantly less complex genomes compared to SynSa2 and SynSa3 groups. There was no significant difference in genome complexity between SynSa2 and SynSa3 tumors. Conclusions: Primary SynSa tumors from patients who develop metastases or local recurrence share common molecular features with metastatic/recurrent tumors. Presented data suggest that the aggressive clinical SynSa behavior is determined early in tumorigenesis and might be related to impaired regulation of mitotic mechanisms.The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.05.006 · 4.24 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitotic spindle function is critical for cell division and genomic stability. During anaphase, the elongating spindle physically segregates the sister chromatids. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine the extent of anaphase spindle elongation remain largely unclear. In a screen of yeast mutants with altered spindle length, we identified the kinesin-8 Kip3 as essential to scale spindle length with cell size. Kip3 is a multifunctional motor protein with microtubule depolymerase, plus-end motility, and antiparallel sliding activities. Here we demonstrate that the depolymerase activity is indispensable to control spindle length, whereas the motility and sliding activities are not sufficient. Furthermore, the microtubule-destabilizing activity is required to counteract Stu2/XMAP215-mediated microtubule polymerization so that spindle elongation terminates once spindles reach the appropriate final length. Our data support a model where Kip3 directly suppresses spindle microtubule polymerization, limiting midzone length. As a result, sliding forces within the midzone cannot buckle spindle microtubules, which allows the cell boundary to define the extent of spindle elongation.The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2014; 204(6). DOI:10.1083/jcb.201312039 · 9.69 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. The activity of APC/C-Cdc20 is inhibited during prometaphase by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) yet certain substrates escape this inhibition. Nek2A degradation during prometaphase depends on direct binding of Nek2A to the APC/C via a C-terminal MR dipeptide but whether this motif alone is sufficient is not clear. Here, we identify Kif18A as a novel APC/C-Cdc20 substrate and show that Kif18A degradation depends on a C-terminal LR motif. However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC.The EMBO Journal 01/2013; DOI:10.1038/emboj.2012.335 · 10.75 Impact Factor