Design and evaluation of 'Linkerless' hydroxamic acids as selective HDAC8 inhibitors.
ABSTRACT In this report, we describe new HDAC inhibitors designed to exploit a unique sub-pocket in the HDAC8 active site. These compounds were based on inspection of the available HDAC8 crystal structures bound to various inhibitors, which collectively show that the HDAC8 active site is unusually malleable and can accommodate inhibitor structures that are distinct from the canonical 'zinc binding group-linker-cap group' structures of SAHA, TSA, and similar HDAC inhibitors. Some inhibitors based on this new scaffold are >100-fold selective for HDAC8 over other class I and class II HDACs with IC(50) values <1microM against HDAC8. Furthermore, treatment of human cells with the inhibitors described here shows a unique pattern of hyperacetylated proteins compared with the broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor TSA.
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic modifications, like histone acetylation, are essential for regulating gene expression within cells. Cancer cells acquire pathological epigenetic modifications resulting in gene expression patterns that facilitate and sustain tumorigenesis. Epigenetic manipulation therefore is emerging as a novel targeted therapy for cancer. Histone Acetylases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) regulate histone acetylation and hence gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are well known to affect cancer cell viability and biology and are already in use for the treatment of cancer patients. Immunotherapy can lead to clinical benefit in selected cancer patients, especially in patients with limited disease after tumor debulking. HDAC inhibitors can potentially synergize with immunotherapy by elimination of tumor cells. The direct effects of HDAC inhibitors on immune cell function, however, remain largely unexplored. Initial data have suggested HDAC inhibitors to be predominantly immunosuppressive, but more recent reports have challenged this view. In this review we will discuss the effects of HDAC inhibitors on tumor cells and different immune cell subsets, synergistic interactions and possible mechanisms. Finally, we will address future challenges and potential application of HDAC inhibitors in immunocombination therapy of cancer.Oncotarget 07/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Previous studies have shown that class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 mRNA is upregulated in urothelial cancer tissues and urothelial cancer cell lines compared to benign controls. Using urothelial cancer cell lines we evaluated whether specific targeting of HDAC8 might be a therapeutic option in bladder cancer treatment.Methods We conducted siRNA-mediated knockdown and specific pharmacological inhibition of HDAC8 with the three different inhibitors compound 2, compound 5, and compound 6 in several urothelial carcinoma cell lines with distinct HDAC8 expression profiles. Levels of HDAC and marker proteins were determined by western blot analysis and mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Cellular effects of HDAC8 suppression were analyzed by ATP assay, flow cytometry, colony forming assay and migration assay.ResultsEfficient siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 reduced proliferation up to 45%. The HDAC8 specific inhibitors compound 5 and compound 6 significantly reduced viability of all urothelial cancer cell lines (IC50 9 ¿ 21 ¿M). Flow cytometry revealed only a slight increase in the sub-G1 fraction indicating a limited induction of apoptosis. Expression of thymidylate synthase was partly reduced; PARP-cleavage was not detected. The influence of the pharmacological inhibition on clonogenic growth and migration show a cell line- and inhibitor-dependent reduction with the strongest effects after treatment with compound 5 and compound 6.Conclusions Deregulation of HDAC8 is frequent in urothelial cancer, but neither specific pharmacological inhibition nor siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 impaired viability of urothelial cancer cell lines in a therapeutic useful manner. Accordingly, HDAC8 on its own is not a promising drug target in bladder cancer.Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 07/2014; 33(1):59. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has been successfully applied in the treatment of a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson's disease, infection, cardiac diseases, inflammation, and especially cancer. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) have been proved to be effective antitumor agents by various stages of investigation. At present, there are two opposite focuses of HDACI design in the cancer therapy, highly selective inhibitor strategy and dual- or multitargeted inhibitors. The former method, which is supposed to elucidate the function of individual HDAC and provide candidate inhibitors with fewer side effects, has been widely accepted by the inhibitor developer. The latter approach, though less practiced, has promising potential for the antitumor therapy based on HDACIs. Effective HDACIs, some of which are in clinic anticancer research, have been developed by both methods. In order to gain insight into HDACI design, the strategies and achievements of the two diverse methods are reviewed.Medicinal Research Reviews 04/2014; · 9.58 Impact Factor