Natural antimicrobial production by the amnion.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of natural antimicrobials in primary cultured amnion epithelial cells and to examine their regulation by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta).
Primary amnion epithelial cells were cultured from samples that were obtained at prelabor cesarean section (n = 12) and stimulated with IL-1beta. Natural antimicrobial messenger RNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance.
Primary amnion epithelial cells express messenger RNA for human beta defensin (HBD) 1 to 3, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and elafin, but not HBD4. IL-1beta 10 ng/mL stimulates HBD2 messenger RNA in a biphasic pattern, with a 51-fold increase at 6 hours and a 67-fold at 12 hours (P < .001). HBD2 protein production is significantly increased by 24 hours (P < .05).
The amnion produces potent natural antimicrobials that may help protect the pregnancy from infection. HBD2 production is dramatically upregulated by the labor-associated inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta.
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ABSTRACT: The amniotic membrane (AM) in humans is the innermost fetal membrane and is composed of amnion mesenchymal cells (hAMCs) and amnion epithelial cells (hAECs). The former are derived from the extra-embryonic mesoderm of the primitive streak, and the latter from the fetal ectoderm. Numerous studies have shown that both hAMCs and hAECs display stem cell characteristics. In this review, we examine the progress made in understanding the characteristics of hAMCs, including information on the structure and function of AM and hAMCs, their immunological features, and the pluripotency of hAMCs.Progress in Natural Science - PROG NAT SCI. 01/2009; 19(9):1047-1052.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous, but not all, anatomical variants of the hepatic artery are known presently. New or extremely rare anatomical variations of the hepatic arteries can however be encountered in the current practice. The first case report was documented using computed tomography and refers to a rare variation: retroportal proper hepatic artery anastomosed with the superior mesenteric artery by an arc of Bühler. The second case report presents the results of a dissection study, where a middle hepatic artery (MHA) was found arising in a common gastrohepatic trunk with the right gastric artery, from the stem of the proper hepatic artery; that MHA coursed over the left hepatic artery, hiding it. Moreover, in case report 2, an accessory right hepatic artery was found arising from the superior mesenteric artery. In the third case reported in this article, an arterial loop was found joining the common hepatic artery and gastroduodenal artery and further sending an ascending branch, diagnosed as MHA, and a descending one, considered as a duplicate gastroduodenal artery. We could not find in any previous reports variants such as those found in case reports 2 and 3, thus we consider these to be extremely rare. However, surgeons and radiologists must be aware of such rare morphological possibilities of the hepatic artery.Annals of Vascular Surgery 06/2011; 25(8):1138.e1-7. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted infections, and their associated sequelae, such as tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy and preterm labour, are a major worldwide health problem. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is thought to be the leading global cause of tubal infertility and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Preterm birth occurs in around 10% of all deliveries, and nearly 30% of preterm deliveries are associated with intrauterine infection. The mucosal innate immune system of the female reproductive tract has evolved to eliminate such sexually transmitted pathogens whilst maintaining its ability to accommodate specialized physiological functions that include menstruation, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy and parturition. The aim of this review was to describe the role and distribution of key mediators of the innate immune system, the natural antimicrobial peptides (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, elafin and the defensins) and the pattern recognition toll-like receptors in the normal female reproductive tract and in the context of these pathological processes.Reproduction 07/2008; 135(6):739-49. · 3.56 Impact Factor