Natural antimicrobial production by the amnion.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of natural antimicrobials in primary cultured amnion epithelial cells and to examine their regulation by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta).
Primary amnion epithelial cells were cultured from samples that were obtained at prelabor cesarean section (n = 12) and stimulated with IL-1beta. Natural antimicrobial messenger RNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance.
Primary amnion epithelial cells express messenger RNA for human beta defensin (HBD) 1 to 3, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and elafin, but not HBD4. IL-1beta 10 ng/mL stimulates HBD2 messenger RNA in a biphasic pattern, with a 51-fold increase at 6 hours and a 67-fold at 12 hours (P < .001). HBD2 protein production is significantly increased by 24 hours (P < .05).
The amnion produces potent natural antimicrobials that may help protect the pregnancy from infection. HBD2 production is dramatically upregulated by the labor-associated inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta.
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ABSTRACT: Infection of human fetal membranes elicits secretion of pro-inflammatory modulators through its innate immune capacities. We investigated the effect of lipopolysacharide (LPS) and progesterone (P4) upon expression of TLR-4/MyD88, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HBD2 on the human amniotic epithelium. Explants of the human amniotic epithelium were pre-treated with 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 μm of P4; then cotreated with 1000 ng/mL LPS. TLR-4 was immuno-detected, and concentrations of MyD88, TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HBD2 were quantified by ELISA. P4 significantly reduced the expression of LPS-induced TLR-4/MyD88. LPS increased the concentrations of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HBD2 by factors of 30-, eight, three, three, and fivefold, respectively. P4 at 1.0 μm was the most effective dose to blunt the secretion of TNFα, IL-6, and HBD-2. RU-486 blocks the effect of P4. P4 inhibited LPS-induced TLR-4/MyD88 and pro-inflammatory factors in the human amniotic epithelium. These results could explain partially how P4 can protect the amniotic region of fetal membranes and generate a compensatory mechanism that limits the secretion of pro-inflammatory modulators, which could jeopardize the immune privilege during pregnancy.American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 10/2013; · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The distribution of earthquake damage plays an important role in the rescue operation and the restoration work in the aftermath of a seismic event. Immediately after an earthquake, the building damage ratios are estimated using ground motion indices and fragility curves constructed from the prior earthquake damage information. However, it should be noted that the fragility curves may sometimes provide less accurate estimations for recent earthquakes. On the other hand, some researchers are focusing efforts on collecting the actual damage information efficiently soon after an earthquake has occurred. The increased attention to collecting the actual damage information is expected to improve the efficiency in the near future and become increasingly helpful for a rapid disaster assessment. In this study, a method for data synthesis to restructure fragility curves is proposed, with respect to the actual gathered damage information. Either the mean or the standard deviation of the prior fragility curve is updated based on collected building damage datasets after recent earthquakes. As a result, the restructured fragility curves with the updated mean values show better estimations than the original ones.Procedia Engineering. 01/2011; 14:227-232.
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the antimicrobial activity of human amniotic and chorionic membranes against some common bacterial and fungal pathogens. The findings clearly demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of both the amniotic and chorionic membranes against the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens at different dilutions by their maximum and minimum inhibitory zones. The maximum inhibition zone was measured in amniotic membrane compared to chorionic membrane in both the bacterial and fungal activity plates. While assessing the four different dilutions (5X10 5 , 5X10 6 , 5X10 7 and 5X10 8), the similar diameter of inhibition zone was observed in 1.5X10 5 and 1.5X10 6 dilutions. The study clearly confirmed the antimicrobial activity effect of both amniotic and chorionic membranes against several bacterial and fungal pathogens in which maximum activity was recorded by amniotic membrane.journal of academia and industrial research. 03/2014; 2(10):545.