Natural antimicrobial production by the amnion
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of natural antimicrobials in primary cultured amnion epithelial cells and to examine their regulation by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta).
Primary amnion epithelial cells were cultured from samples that were obtained at prelabor cesarean section (n = 12) and stimulated with IL-1beta. Natural antimicrobial messenger RNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance.
Primary amnion epithelial cells express messenger RNA for human beta defensin (HBD) 1 to 3, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and elafin, but not HBD4. IL-1beta 10 ng/mL stimulates HBD2 messenger RNA in a biphasic pattern, with a 51-fold increase at 6 hours and a 67-fold at 12 hours (P < .001). HBD2 protein production is significantly increased by 24 hours (P < .05).
The amnion produces potent natural antimicrobials that may help protect the pregnancy from infection. HBD2 production is dramatically upregulated by the labor-associated inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta.
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ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli is recognized as an etiological bacteria associated with chorioamnionitis and the preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes. This pathological condition induces pro-inflammatory cytokines and degradative metalloproteinases, which are considered biological markers secreted in an acute stage of infection. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are an important component of the innate immunity response and are found in different pathological conditions. They have not been previously measured in human fetal membranes in response to infectious conditions. We hypothesized that the choriodecidual tissue and amniotic epithelium secreted temporal and differential Hsp-60, Hsp-70, and interleukin (IL)-1β mediated by E. coli infection. Fetal membranes were mounted in a two-compartment culture system and infected with two passes of live E. coli at different doses (10(2), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL) and intervals of incubation (3, 6, and 24 h). The culture medium was collected, and Hsp-60, Hsp-70, and IL-1β were assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. After 3 and 6 h of infection, E. coli induced an increase in Hsp-70 secretion in the choriodecidual tissue. However, after 24 h of incubation, Hsp-70 was downregulated and we observed an increase in IL-1β secretion. By contrast, E. coli induced a lower Hsp-60 secretion in the amnion compared to Hsp-70. Human fetal membranes responded actively to E. coli infection, with an increase in Hsp-70 during the first hours of infection. After 24 h, there was an increase in the liberation of IL-1β. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Placenta 12/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2014.12.011 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the antimicrobial activity of human amniotic and chorionic membranes against some common bacterial and fungal pathogens. The findings clearly demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of both the amniotic and chorionic membranes against the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens at different dilutions by their maximum and minimum inhibitory zones. The maximum inhibition zone was measured in amniotic membrane compared to chorionic membrane in both the bacterial and fungal activity plates. While assessing the four different dilutions (5X10 5 , 5X10 6 , 5X10 7 and 5X10 8), the similar diameter of inhibition zone was observed in 1.5X10 5 and 1.5X10 6 dilutions. The study clearly confirmed the antimicrobial activity effect of both amniotic and chorionic membranes against several bacterial and fungal pathogens in which maximum activity was recorded by amniotic membrane.
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ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted infections, and their associated sequelae, such as tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy and preterm labour, are a major worldwide health problem. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is thought to be the leading global cause of tubal infertility and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Preterm birth occurs in around 10% of all deliveries, and nearly 30% of preterm deliveries are associated with intrauterine infection. The mucosal innate immune system of the female reproductive tract has evolved to eliminate such sexually transmitted pathogens whilst maintaining its ability to accommodate specialized physiological functions that include menstruation, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy and parturition. The aim of this review was to describe the role and distribution of key mediators of the innate immune system, the natural antimicrobial peptides (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, elafin and the defensins) and the pattern recognition toll-like receptors in the normal female reproductive tract and in the context of these pathological processes.Reproduction 07/2008; 135(6):739-49. DOI:10.1530/REP-07-0564