Comparison of three-dimensional echocardiography to two-dimensional echocardiography and fluoroscopy for monitoring of endomyocardial biopsy
ABSTRACT Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) offers the rapid acquisition of quantitative and qualitative anatomic data without the use of geometric assumptions. This study was designed to test the feasibility and potential superiority of RT3DE versus 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and standard fluoroscopy for monitoring endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs). Thirty-eight consecutive EMBs performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 26 patients were monitored using 2DE and RT3DE alternately. Two reviewers scored each biopsy pass for visualization of the tip of the bioptome and location of the actual biopsy. Overall image quality was noted as good or poor, and the effect of image quality on tip localization was analyzed. A total of 243 biopsy attempts were made during 38 EMBs. The location of the biopsy was determined in 74% of the biopsies monitored with RT3DE, whereas 2DE demonstrated the location with certainty in only 43% of the biopsies (p <0.0001). On a procedure-by-procedure comparison, RT3DE was found to show the bioptome tip better in 23 of 38 biopsies, compared with 1 of 38 for 2DE (p = 0.001). In 14 of 38 EMBs, neither method was clearly better. In conclusion, RT3DE improves the ability to see the location of the bioptome during EMB compared with 2DE and fluoroscopy.
Article: Advances in echocardiography.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Before the development of echocardiography, cardiac disease in the horse was diagnosed if a loud heart murmur (grade III-IV/VI or louder) and clinical signs of congestive heart failure (coughing, edema, venous distention, jugular pulsations) were detected on physical examination. Arrhythmias that persisted during and after exercise also indicated cardiac disease, which could be characterized electrocardiographically. Electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, angiography, cardiac catheterization, and oximetry could add only small pieces of information about the heart. M-mode echocardiography provided the first "window" with which to evaluate the heart and its intracardiac structures, albeit an ice-pick one-dimensional view. With M-mode echocardiography, the diameter of the aorta at the valves, the left ventricle, right ventricle, and left atrial appendage, as well as the thickness of the interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall, could be measured. Motion and thickness of the tricuspid, mitral, and aortic valves could be assessed, but only in a one-dimensional plane. Two-dimensional echocardiography provided an added dimension, resulting in visualization of all the intracardiac structures, aorta, and pulmonary artery. Two-dimensional echocardiography became the diagnostic technique of choice for the evaluation and characterization of congenital cardiac disease in critically ill neonates, as well as in adult horses. Two-dimensional echocardiography also improved the ability to diagnose valvular regurgitations, characterize valvular lesions (bacterial endocarditis, ruptured chorda tendineae), myocardial function (segmental wall motion abnormalities), atrial size, mass lesions (endocarditis, neoplasia, and thrombi), and pericardial effusion. Information about blood flow was obtained using contrast echocardiography but was limited to certain cardiac abnormalities (congenital cardiac defects and tricuspid regurgitation). This information about blood flow was limited to the detection of positive or negative contrast jets. Comprehensive information about blood flow was lacking until the application of Doppler echocardiography to equine cardiology. Pulsed-wave and color flow Doppler echocardiography resulted in precise localization of the abnormal blood flow and semiquantitation of the shunt flow or regurgitant jet. Color flow Doppler echocardiography sped up the localization and semiquantitation of the jet in many instances and provided some information about blood flow velocity in the enhanced and variance modes. The peak velocity of jets can be determined using continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography. This value then can be used to estimate pressure difference between cardiac chambers or to calculate cardiac output noninvasively if angles parallel to flow can be obtained. Thus, information about cardiac size, function, and blood flow can be combined to diagnose cardiac disease in horses and to formulate a prognosis for life and performance.Veterinary Clinics of North America Equine Practice 09/1991; 7(2):435-50. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) already has demonstrated its utility in guiding intracardiac procedures. This article discusses the advantages RT3DE has over the previous standard of 2D echocardiography.Cardiology Clinics 06/2007; 25(2):335-40. DOI:10.1016/j.ccl.2007.06.004 · 1.06 Impact Factor
Article: The role of endomyocardial biopsy in the management of cardiovascular disease: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the European Society of Cardiology Endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America and the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of CardiologyJournal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2007; 50(19):1914-31. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.09.008 · 15.34 Impact Factor