Maggot excretions/secretions inhibit multiple neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.
ABSTRACT There is renewed interest in the use of maggots (Lucilia sericata) to aid in healing of chronic wounds. In such wounds neutrophils precipitate tissue damage rather than contribute to healing. As the molecules responsible for the beneficial actions of maggots are contained in their excretions/secretions (ES), we assessed the effects of ES on functional activities of human neutrophils. ES dose-dependently inhibited elastase release and H(2)O(2) production by fMLP-activated neutrophils; maximal inhibition was seen with 5-50 microg of ES/ml. In contrast, ES did not affect phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans by neutrophils. Furthermore, 0.5 microg of ES/ml already inhibited neutrophil migration towards fMLP. ES dose-dependently reduced the fMLP-stimulated expression of CD11b/CD18 by neutrophils, suggesting that ES modulate neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. ES did not affect the fMLP-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in neutrophils, indicating that ES act down-stream of phospholipase C-mediated activation of protein kinase C. In agreement, ES inhibited PMA-activated neutrophil functional activities. ES induced a rise in intracellular cAMP concentration in neutrophils and pharmacological activators of cAMP-dependent mechanisms mimicked their inhibitory effects on neutrophils. The beneficial effects of maggots on chronic wounds may be explained in part by inhibition of multiple pro-inflammatory responses of activated neutrophils by ES.
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a general mechanism for removal of unwanted cells from the immune system. It is characterized by chromatin condensation, a reduction in cell volume, and endonuclease cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal length fragments. Apoptosis is also accompanied by a loss of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, resulting in the exposure of phosphatidylserine at the surface of the cell. Expression of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface plays an important role in the recognition and removal of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Here we describe a new method for the detection of apoptotic cells by flow cytometry, using the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V to phosphatidylserine. When Burkitt lymphoma cell lines and freshly isolated germinal center B cells are cultured under apoptosis inducing conditions, all cells showing chromatin condensation strongly stain with annexin V, whereas normal cells are annexin V negative. Moreover, DNA fragmentation is only found in the annexin V-positive cells. The nonvital dye ethidium bromide was found to stain a subpopulation of the annexin V-positive apoptotic cells, increasing with time. Our results indicate that the phase in apoptosis that is characterized by chromatin condensation coincides with phosphatidylserine exposure. Importantly, it precedes membrane damage that might lead to release from the cells of enzymes that are harmful to the surrounding tissues. Annexin V may prove important in further unravelling the regulation of apoptosis.Blood 10/1994; 84(5):1415-20. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A consistent feature of chronic leg and pressure ulcers is chronic inflammation associated with an elevated infiltration of neutrophils. Neutrophils and their proteases have been implicated in mediating the tissue damage associated with a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. This review discusses our current understanding of the proteolytic enzymes found in chronic wounds and attempts to relate this information to the abundant presence of neutrophils. In addition, the implications that the proteolytic environment may have for current and future treatment strategies of chronic nonhealing wounds are discussed.Wound Repair and Regeneration 01/1999; 7(6):433-41. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human neutrophils are highly specialised for their primary function, i.e. phagocytosis and destruction of microorganisms. Leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation and infection is dependent upon the presence of a gradient of locally produced chemotactic factors. The bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was one of the first of these to be identified and is a highly potent leukocyte chemoattractant. It interacts with its receptor on the neutrophil membrane, activating these cells through a G-protein-coupled pathway. Two functional fMLP receptors have thus far been cloned and characterized, namely FPR (formyl peptide receptor) and FPRL1 (FPR like-1), with high and low affinities for fMLP, respectively. FMLP is known to activate phospholipase C (PLC), PLD, PLA2 and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), and it also activates tyrosine phosphorylation. The second messengers resulting from the fMLP receptor interaction act on various intracellular kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The activation of these signal transduction pathways is known to be responsible for various biochemical responses which contribute to physiological defence against bacterial infection and cell disruption. This review will consider the ability of selective analogues (ligands able to discriminate between different biological responses) to activate a single spectrum of signal transduction pathways capable of producing a unique set of cellular responses, hypothesising that a distinctive imprint of signal protein activation may exist. Through more complete understanding of intracellular signaling, new drugs could be developed for the selective inflammatory blockade.European Journal of Pharmacology 04/2006; 534(1-3):1-11. · 2.59 Impact Factor